The Kodak 4 x 4" Carbon Neutral Density (ND) 0.9 Wratten 2 Gel Filter has several uses and offers the possibility to achieve otherwise unachievable results. ND filters appear grey and reduce the amount of light reaching the film. They have no effect on color balance.
Most Kodak gelatin filters are available in 3 x 3" (75 x 75mm), 4 x 4" (100 x 100mm), 6 x 6" (150 x 150mm), 14 x 18" (350 x 450mm) and 4 x 12" (10.2 x 30.5cm).
- Carbon Neutral Density Filter are used to reduce the intensity of light by a definite ratio, without affecting the tonal rendition of colors; improves neutrality in the UV and IR fields.
Wratten 2 Improvements
- More rigid/durable
- Easier to handle
- Color consistent today, and 6 months from now as well
- Wratten 2 Optical Filters are less sensitive to humidity, less prone to static cling.
- Fingerprint removal is also easier
Neutral Density filters have four main uses
- To enable slow shutter speeds to be used, especially with high speed films, to record movement in subjects such as waterfalls, clouds, or cars.
- To decrease depth of field by allowing wider apertures to be used, which helps separate subjects from their background.
- To decrease the effective ISO of high speed film (above ISO 400) and allow it to be used outdoors in bright situations.
- To allow cine and video cameras (which have fixed shutter speeds) to film subjects such as snow, sand or other bright scenes which could cause overexposure.
Neutral Density factors
- ND.3 (exposure adjustment = 1 stop, reduces ISO 1/2)
- ND.6 (exposure adjustment = 2 stops, reduces ISO 1/4)
- ND.9 (exposure adjustment = 3 stops, reduces ISO 1/8)
- ND 1.8 (exposure adjustment = approx. 6 stops, transmits 1% of light,)
- ND 3.0 (exposure adjustment = 10 stops, transmits 0.1% of light)
- ND 4.0 (exposure adjustment = 13-2/3 stops, transmits 0.01% of light)
- ND 6.0 = (exposure adjustment = approx. 20 stops)