Photography / Tips and Solutions

A Guide to Archiving Your Film Negatives and Prints Properly

         

When working with tangible photographic media, the utmost care is necessary to preserve the lifespan and quality of your products. Unlike digital media, photographic film and inkjet and traditional darkroom prints can be affected by environmental conditions and handling, and proper techniques can be a simple way to maintain the quality and appearance of your media over time.

What is archival?

The term “archival” is thrown around a lot in the world of storage and display methods for film and prints, but what does it really mean? It can generally be understood as the use of tools and methods to maintain a stable state and purity of your media, without introducing contaminants or otherwise physically degrading elements into your media. Without getting too scientific and chemically specific, a key term to look for in storage means is “acid-free,” which generally indicates the material has a pH value of at least 7 and is more alkaline than acidic. When materials are more acidic, with pH values below 7, media can discolor, fade, and generally deteriorate in quality over time.

“... time proves to be ultimate test, in the long run.”

When something is considered “archival,” this typically means it comprises materials with a high level of alkalinity. Some manufacturers may claim their storage boxes, folders, sleeves, or paper types are “archival for up to so many years” or “color-fast for X-number of years.” These claims are reassuring, but shouldn’t necessarily be taken literally. Tests, such as the Photographic Activity Test (P.A.T.), use accelerated aging methods to estimate archival lifespans of materials; however, time proves to be ultimate test, in the long run. These tests also do not fully account for all variables of various storage conditions, but they do serve as a consistent representation and a guide as to whether or not the storage material will negatively affect your media.

Prints

Regardless if you shoot film or digital, and output inkjet prints or traditional silver, chromogenic, or alternative process prints, all photographers need to be concerned with proper storage and handling of prints to ensure the longest lifespan of your printed images. Different media types all have various estimated lifespans due to their composition and the process in which they were created, such as the type of paper you are printing on and the type of ink in use. For traditional black-and-white prints, the same can be said for material types, as well as the decision to tone your prints, such as with selenium, for greater archival stability.

After the print has been made; however, handling, displaying, and storing it properly is essential to maintain its appearance over the years.

• When handling, the best recommendation is to avoid touching the surface of the print with your bare hands to prevent transferring the oils from your skin to the print. Cotton gloves are an easy way to limit oils from contacting your prints while handling, and will also prevent fingerprints from smudging the surface of the print.


Archival Methods Medium-Weight Bleached Cotton Inspection Gloves

• For displaying your prints in a book format, a presentation portfolio is a straightforward way to protect and showcase your work. Available in a wide variety of sizes and configurations, portfolios are commonly used as an alternative to simply sharing loose prints and (perhaps awkwardly) asking your viewer to wear a pair of white gloves to flip through your photos.


Presentation books and binders

• For more fine art applications where a portfolio book can compromise the context and aesthetics of your prints, a portfolio box is the standard for housing loose prints. Dedicated portfolio boxes are acid- and lignin-free, and can also lend a professional appearance to your print storage. Boxes are also perfect for storing matted prints and uniquely shaped or delicate prints.


Presentation boxes and folios

Photo albums are also a classic means for sharing and housing photos, although they tend to provide the least protection for your prints if they are mounted with photo corners or some other less-than-permanent method of holding the prints in place.


Photo albums and accessories

• When framing your prints for display on a wall, it’s crucial to remember not to have the print directly touching the glazing. While the glass, acrylic, or Plexiglas may be archival, over time the print may bind or adhere to the surface and result in the emulsion separating from the paper. Window mats are a simple and appealing method to keep the print away from the glazing. For more considerations on framing, check out our explora article, How to Display Your Photos Like a Pro.


Pre-cut mat boards

• Finally, the essential tool that all photographers who print should own: a storage box. Similar to portfolio boxes, these generally oversized boxes far surpass the proverbial shoebox of prints, due to their archival construction, durable metal corners to retain rigidity under load, and hinged front lids for easy removal of prints.


Archival museum and preservation boxes

Film Negatives

Similar in many regards to prints, film negatives (and positives) are even more delicate than prints and require a range of special storage requirements to ensure they remain in top condition over time. Fading and transferring of oils are certainly concerns when handling and storing negatives; however, dust and scratches can also be added to the list of elements to minimize. Since negatives are not displayed in the same manner as prints, more permanent storage means are typically used for keeping film.

• Worth a second mention, cotton gloves are again a necessity when handling your film. Whether you are inserting your film into a film holder for scanning, a negative carrier for enlarging in a darkroom, or sleeves for storing, gloves make it substantially easier to prevent adding unwanted fingerprints to the film surface.

• Speaking of sleeves, negative sleeves (or storage pages) are compulsory for safekeeping film. Available in myriad sizes and able to accommodate nearly any film format and frame count you can imagine, these clear plastic holders safeguard film from dust and scratches when they’re being stored in a binder.


Archival pages, sleeves and rolls

• And speaking about binders, special storage binders are another necessity for housing film within negative sleeves. These three-ring binders are a bit more involved than the binders you used during high school, because they are fully enclosed, constructed from archival materials, and feature security tabs to prevent unwanted elements from entering during storage.


Storage binders

• Prior to the advent of clear plastic sleeves, photographers often used glassine envelopes for storing negatives. These archival paper sleeves are still used, often for sheet film and obscure film formats, as well as for long-term keeping of film in storage boxes.


Glassine envelopes

• Finally, the last tool that is crucial for protecting and preserving your film is a means for keeping it clean in the event dust or other particles find their way onto your negatives (and they will). The author’s preferred tool is the distinctly smelling Antistaticum Cloth from Ilford; however, a range of other tools, as well as blowers and canned air, can be used with equal success.

For more information on everything photography, check out B&H’s Learn Photography portal. You’ll find video tutorials, tips, inspirational articles, and gear reviews. B&H is “The Professional’s Source” for learning about photography.

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This article should be commended for it's effort to explain and advise on topics related to the archival preservation of photographs and negatives, however there is a something within it that needs clarification. Glassine envelopes are NOT recommended for the storage of photographic materials, as per ISO (International Organization for Standardization) Guideline #18911 for Processed Photographic Films / Storage Practices:

Glassine envelopes and chlorinated, nitrated, or highly plasticized sheeting shall be avoided. Specifically, cellulose nitrate and polyvinyl chloride are not acceptable.”

The underlying reasoning for ISO standards to exclude the use of glassine is as follows:

“Glassine should not be used with photographic negatives and prints as these photographic media have a protective gelatin layer. With high humidity and warm temperatures the gelatin layer can become soft and the smooth surface of the glassine can stick to the negative or print causing unwanted damage.”

Neutral polypropylene or polyethylene sleeves, envelopes and bags are a much better alternative to glassine. In addition, while the article goes on to discuss issues of dust and its effect on stored negatives, standard high-density polyethylene sleeves and envelopes are naturally “non-static” and are thus the perfect solution for long-term archival negative storage / easy retrieval.

For negatives, both B&W and color, and unmounted positive film a few things should be pointed out:

If you use plastic holders they should be PVC free. This is also true for mounted slides. But more importantly, in my experience, it is far preferable to use glassine envelopes or accordion type glassine negative film holders. (Which are hard to find today.) The reason is simple. The plastic sleeves attract dust and airborne dirt over time. Glassine does not. I have my 20,000+ archive of B&W negatives from almost 50 years ago which I still print from stored in the original glassine accordion negative files (one 36 exposure roll of film per file in strips of 6 frames) I put them in after processing at the time and my film is still perfect and clean, unscratched and dust free. I went through a short period of transferring some material to the archival PVC-free plastic sheets, and within 6 months they had attracted dust to the surface which put the film at risk of being contaminated when removing the strips for printing and putting them back after use.

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