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The Tiffen Cokin P Neutral Density (ND) 0.9 Glass Filter enables the shooter to adjust exposure without affecting color balance. Neutral density filters are available in 1, 2, 3, or 4 stops to suit individual situations.
Determining which neutral density filter yields ideal results for any given lighting situation takes knowledge, experience and a collection of such filters. Choose the filter strength which adjusts the lighting to stay within the exposure latitude (greatest difference between bright/dark values) which still shows details in both of the digital or film medium in use.
Speaking generally, the 2-stop value (ND 0.6 - the filter's clear portion allows 4x more light to pass vs. darkest portion) effectively compensates average situations.
When more precise lighting control is required, Tiffen also makes a series of Graduated Neutral Density filters. These filters permit better exposure balance between bright skies and darker foregrounds or vice versa.
Neutral Density Filters Have Four Main Uses
To enable slow shutter speeds to be used, especially with high speed films, to record movement in subjects such as waterfalls, clouds, or cars
To decrease depth of field by allowing wider apertures to be used, which helps separate subjects from their background
To decrease the effective ISO of high speed film (above ISO 400) and allow it to be used outdoors in bright situations
To allow cine and video cameras (which have fixed shutter speeds) to film subjects such as snow, sand or other bright scenes which could cause overexposure
Neutral Density Factors
ND.3 (exposure adjustment = 1 stop, reduces ISO 1/2)
ND.6 (exposure adjustment = 2 stops, reduces ISO 1/4)
ND.9 (exposure adjustment = 3 stops, reduces ISO 1/8)
ND 1.2 (exposure adjustment = 4 stops, reduces ISO 1/16)