Are Quadcopters Legal?

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In response to booming popularity, many people have been seeking information about the legality of using unmanned remote-controlled aircraft. The FAA lumps this kind of aircraft under the general classification of UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle), or UAS (Unmanned Aerial Systems). It's a broad category that includes everything from the Predator drone to the DJI Phantom quadcopter. Unfortunately, there's next to nothing I can tell you at the moment. Very few laws explicitly address UAVs, and those that do are dated, clearly meant for vehicles with the size, mass, and capability close to that of manned aircraft. Hobbyist and consumer RC aircraft and their photo- and video-oriented derivatives, like the Phantom, aren't explicitly addressed, apart from a few guidelines. This is covered by the FAA Moderization and Reform Act of 2012, sections 331-336. 

Disclaimer: This article should not be taken as legal advice. Rather, this article merely reflects the views of its author. Please consult with an attorney to determine what, if any, legal requirements or restrictions apply to the use of UAVs in your area.

As far as the FAA goes, here is what I can tell you:

  • Don't fly a UAV within FAA controlled airspace without FAA approval—approval that you won't get
  • Don't use a UAV for commercial purposes without FAA approval—again, approval you won't get
  • Keep your aircraft within visual range and uder complete observation at all times, and below 400' AGL (above ground level), regardless of the available BVR (Beyond Visual Range) systems

What Changed?

Before attempting to answer that, we should consider why this legislation is being pushed through now. In my opinion, there are two factors:

  • The explosion in popularly of UAVs outside the previously niche RC community
  • Inexpensive flight control systems that make consumer multi-rotor helicopters possible

Arguably, the two are interrelated. In the past, RC aircraft were more commonly fixed-wing, meaning they required a sizable area to take off and land. And the VTOL systems (Vertical-Take-Off-and-Landing, i.e., helicopters) that did exist where very difficult to fly. Inexpensive, computerized flight controllers have made it comparatively easy to fly multi-rotor systems. Because they are VTOL-capable, and relatively compact, they can be deployed essentially anywhere, and in the hands of a skilled pilot, they can be maneuvered nearly anywhere.

Because today's UAVs can be flown with varying degrees of autopilot assistance, from nearly full autopilot (for craft with GPS) to full "agility" modes that disable virtually all safeties, these new multi-rotors have attracted users with less practical flying experience. More people are using them, and more people are using them without applying common sense. Greater maneuverability means more small UAVs in the air, with more being used in unexpected contexts. Because of this explosion, the government has recognized that this technology needs to be formally addressed, not to mention the growing desire on the part of businesses to put UAVs to commercial use without going through the current, monolithic FAA-approval hoopla.

What is FAA Airspace?
 

 

For Illustration only: FAA-designated airspace classes and their respective ranges

If you're reading this article in the United States, or in its posessions or territories, you are within the FAA's airspace, or the NAS (National Air Space of the United States). There's a widely held belief that below a certain altitude, one is outside FAA jurisdiction—some say below 400 feet, others say below 700 feet. Either way, this is a canard. FAA jurisdiction starts at the ground and extends to the edge of space. Most likely, FAA jurisdiction is being confused with FAA-"controlled" airspace.

"FAA jurisdiction starts at the ground and extends to the edge of space."

What is FAA-controlled airspace? Essentially, it is airspace in which manned aircraft operate. The controlled airspace around airports is divided into classes by the FAA, and how these are divided will vary depending on geographical and other factors. However, a good rule of thumb is to assume that all airspace within five miles of an airport, starting at sea level, is controlled, and that operating UAVs without explicit FAA approval is prohibited. This means that it's effectively illegal to operate a UAV almost anywhere in what one might consider metro New York City, because there are three major airports, including Newark.

Newark International Airport

Commercial Use

Technically, the FAA doesn't forbid the commercial use of UAVs, they just require FAA approval. Only two UAS aircraft models have been approved for commercial use: the Boeing Insitu ScanEagle and the Aerovironment Puma, and only for deployment in the Arctic. These are the kind of operations the FAA initially had in mind when they drafted the law. Today's commercial quadcopters are clearly not what they were thinking of when the law was passed.

This hasn't stopped the FAA from doing its best to block the commercial use of consumer-grade UAVs. Perhaps the most famous case applies to a Minnesota brewery that was using a DJI F550 to deliver beer to ice fishers. Many are under the impression that the FAA acted outside of its jurisdiction here; however, as noted above, all airspace is enforced by the FAA, and the prohibition against unauthorized commercial use does not include qualifications about a minimum operational altitude.

The FAA oversees and regulates airspace for thousands of aircraft simultaneously.

In another case, the FAA ruling has been challenged. On March 6, 2014, NTSB Administrative Law Judge Patrick Geraghty ruled that the FAA law does not ban the commercial use of drones. This follows a lawsuit against Swiss UAV operator Raphael Pirker, after he allegedly flew his craft recklessly over the University of Virginia's campus while recording a video he had been hired to make. The ruling would seemingly open the skies to  commercial UAV flights. However, as this article goes to press, the FAA is appealing the ruling. So, we will just have to wait and see what happens.

Until we know the outcome of this case, it's safe to assume that commercial flying is still illegal—unless spending time in court attempting to establish a legal precedent is something you want to do.

Non-UAV Laws that may Apply

The FAA is currently in "enforcement mode" and will go after people that violate 14 CFR 91, however, until 2015, you are more likely to be prosecuted under other laws rather than FAA or UAV-specific legislation, such as:

  • Reckless endangerment (a felony)
  • Invasion of privacy (can easily be upgraded to a federal complaint)
  • Obstruction of police/emergency services duties (a felony)
  • Noise ordinance violation
  • Littering

Of those, invasion of privacy and reckless endangerment, for obvious reasons, will likely serve as the most common basis for lawsuits and prosecution against UAV operators. However, one could envision an imaginative prosecutor coming up with less obvious grounds to build a case, such as fining an operator for littering, in a case where the UAV crashed in a public area and was abandoned by the pilot. Therefore, one shouldn't assume that just because UAVs represent something of a new legal frontier that one will be immune from any form of legal action.

Privacy

Because more and more UAVs have cameras built in or support the attachment of cameras, privacy and UAV use is becoming a hot topic. Apart from reckless endangerment, privacy could well become a major basis for prosecution or lawsuits against UAV operators. For now, normal privacy laws would seem to apply to image and audio capture from UAVs in general. That is to say, for the most part, one is allowed to record or photograph in contexts where there is no "reasonable" expectation of privacy. A major cevat, however, is that UAV's typically operate well above eye level, and there are cases where this is considered to violate resonable expectations of privacy.


In a park, or on a city street, for example, there is no "reasonable" expectation of privacy, nor is there generally a legal basis to make an invasion of privacy claim, since one is in what is understood to be a public place. The same may even apply to parts of private property "normally" visible from public space, such as a front yard visible from the street. On the other hand, recording the interior of a home or private building is illegal, even if the camera is placed outside. Additionally, exterior spaces on private property, possibly a backyard not normally visible from the street, are quite often, like the interior of a home, considered spaces where one has a reasonable expectation of privacy under the law. What this means for UVA operators is that flying over, say, someone's backyard and recording video or photos stands a good chance of qualifying as an invasion of privacy and should be avoided. This is true even where there is no direct over-flight; in other words, where there is no question of trespassing, but the camera is still able to capture images from parts of the property where reasonable expectation of privacy holds.

Will laws change in this regard? My guess is, as legislation evolves, privacy laws will become stricter as they relate to UAVs than they are in general. For now, most users seem to be innocent, shooting video for the sheer enjoyment. However, it's only a matter of time before we start seeing the technology used by private investigators and others as surveillance tools. Although currently restricted, it's also likely we will see their increased use by law enforcement as well as private security, and again it will be interesting to learn how the privacy debate pans out.

Air Rights over Private Property

The question of air rights as it relates to UAVs is relatively novel since manned aircraft operate thousands of feet above populated areas, far too high to be considered trespassing. Air rights in the sense of, say, hoisting a boom over a neighbor's property are well-defined, and such an action, it's safe to assume, would indeed constitute trespassing. Some may be tempted to assume that since UAVs operate in a sort of middle ground, below the elevations at which manned aircraft normally operate, yet potentially above the reach of ground-based apparatuses such as a cherry pickers, they are somehow exempt. While this may, to some extent, be arguable for larger, commercial-grade UAVs that come closer to manned aircraft in capability (if they ever get legalized), it hardly seems like a good thing to risk in the case of a quadcopter or other consumer UAV. Consumer UAVs don't have the range and are too unreliable—many, if they lose signal, will automatically land wherever they are, or will fly at a fixed, low elevation back to a home point. But even if consumer craft were more capable, the requirement that they have to be kept within visual range (see below) effectively limits how high they can be flown.

In other words, one would still be extremely foolish to operate over someone else's private property without permission. In a small town in Colorado, it's now legal to shoot down UAVs that are flying over private property.

Beyond Visual Range (BVR)

"You are required to maintain visual contact with your aircraft at all times."

BVR flying is currently forbidden by the FAA, and also goes against AMA (Academy of Model Aeronautics) and other guidelines. In other words, you are required to maintain visual contact with your aircraft at all times. This is true even if the vehicle is equipped with an FPV (First Person View) camera system, or is capable of flying along a pre-configured autopilot course. This rule applies regardless of the range of the transmitter, which, in some cases, can be several miles, under the right conditions.

Since the size of the aircraft and local visibility can vary, there currently isn't a set distance as to how far away a UVA can be from the pilot. Simply put, the pilot needs to be able to see the UAV, maintain full control over it, and steer it clear of other aircraft and buildings.

Since BVR systems no longer require the Pentagon's budget to purchase, I would expect to see a lot of pressure to change this law, or otherwise nullify the FAA's assertion. My guess is BVR will get approval for commercial applications, perhaps including Amazon's proposed drone-delivery scheme. This will be contingent on FAA certification of the aircraft model being used, as well as some sort of licensing requirement on the part of the operator. I am not as optimistic that we will see the FAA's blessing for consumer use of BVR, even though many UAV makers are already promoting BVR systems.

Who Enforces FAA Laws?

Normally, the FAA uses its own agents, and has its own enforcement mechanism. At least in theory, normal police can arrest you or otherwise enforce FAA legislation. With the widespread public use of UAVs, I would expect this to change. Along with new provisions for consumer UAVs will come provisions granting local law enforcement justification over non-FAA controlled airspace. Either that, or we can expect to see complementary state or local laws that grant local law enforcement authority over the relevant portion of the airspace on top of any FAA legislation. For FAA-controlled airspace, I would expect things to stay more or less as they are. Unless civilian BVR flying is legalized, I would expect UAVs to remain largely excluded from operating in these zones.

Local RC Clubs: An Invaluable Resource

The best piece of advice I can give right now for anyone who's concerned about legalities is to consult a local RC club in your area. In the US, the best place to look is the Academy of Model Aeronautics, or AMA. Not only can they point you toward RC clubs in your area, they provide a wealth of resources for RC pilots and also offer liability insurance that will cover you for up to two million dollars in damages, provided you operate within the safety guidelines they set.

It's not just for legal issues. RC clubs provide beginners with an invaluable community of support. Members have the experience to tell you where it's safe to fly, what pitfalls you may encounter, and they can even provide training, as well as troubleshooting assistance. 

Summary

With the caveat that there are always expectations, and that you should consult with clubs and fliers in your local area, the basic guidelines for flying legally (and safely) can summarized thus:

  • Don't fly above 400'.
  • Don't fly at any elevation within 5 miles of an airport.
  • Don't fly around areas where VTOLs (helicopters) or any small commuter aircraft operate.
  • Keep your aircraft within visual range and under full control.
  • Don't fly over populated areas.
  • Don't record video or take photos in contexts where there is an "expectation of privacy."
  • Treat the air over private property as private property.
  • Follow the safely guidelines set forth by the AMA, even those that are not legally enforced.
  • Don't use your UAV for what the FAA might deem as a commercial purpose.

Though specific legislation is coming, it's more than likely that all but the last of these guidelines will still be valid after 2015. For the most part, it just boils down to following common sense. The laws are really there to decide what to do in cases where people willfully or negligently choose not to follow common sense.

After 2015

As noted, the main change will be the formal ratification of laws that enforce common-sense guidelines already established within the RC community. We will also likely see the legalization of commercial UAV uses, probably requiring some form of FAA or other government agency licensing or registration.

One hopes that the new laws will take into account the wide range of types of UAVs, and not lump everything from a Hubsan X4, which weighs just ounces and nearly fits in your pocket, to a Boeing Phantom Eye, which has a 150-foot wingspan and can carry a 450-pound payload. Ideally, consumer UAVs probably shouldn't fall under FAA legislation at all, beyond a provision that they don't interfere with manned aircraft. Other forms of federal legislation may apply, and for things like risks to the public, it probably makes sense for laws to be crafted at the city level, or perhaps regional level. Clearly, the risks associated with UAV operation in New York City are very different from those in small towns and rural areas.

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How long, I wonder, before someone seriously tests the applicability of FAR Part 103 to these little marvels. 14 CFR 103 regulates the operation of air recreational vehicles, usually called ultralights in the US. Their equivalents in other countries are often termed microlights. These drones appear to satisfy the requirements of Part 103, sort of, more or less, save for the unmanned aspect. Once someone with the money to pay for federal litigation takes an interest, this could play out in federal court. It's not likely to be resolved satisfactorily in administrative court, where the FAA usually lays down the law.

Excellent article

The way I see it: Go out and fly and just enjoy yourself. Don't be stupid and hurt or kill anyone or damage property. If you do any of those then be the bigger person and own up to it. Fly smart, stay hungry.

If you do get a Phantom just starting out then be sure to join the facebook group or do your due dilligence and visit fpvlab.com and inhale the information. :)

The author wisely advises prospective drone users to get competent legal advice. However, this is much more easily said than it is accomplished.

Unless you live in Oklahoma City or D.C., it is extremely improbable that any local lawyer will have any competence at all in the interpretation of the Federal Air Regulations. An honest attorney (yeah, I know, very funny) will politely decline to take your money, while the other 99.7% will offer to answer your question, as long as you pay their standard hourly fee while they are learning the basics of the FARs and their complexities.

Since this is on the bleeding edge of evolving law - as the author thoroughly explains - all questions relating to UAV operation are subject to considerable uncertainty, and almost all lawyers will explain this in the process of telling you that the information that you have paid them vast amounts of money to obtain may not safely be relied upon.

The result? You could easily spend more than the price of the drone on legal advice that could and probably will be rendered moot or outright wrong with the next legal decision. To add even more fun to the mix, while the FARs apply uniformly across the country, most federal district court decisions do not. Thus, a decision in your favor in New York may run contrary to one against your brother-in-law in California.

The best advice? If you need to use a drone, then perfect your ability to figuratively AND literally stay under the radar.

TestPilot wrote:

The author wisely advises prospective drone users to get competent legal advice. However, this is much more easily said than it is accomplished.

Unless you live in Oklahoma City or D.C., it is extremely improbable that any local lawyer will have any competence at all in the interpretation of the Federal Air Regulations.

Or New York.

http://www.kramerlevin.com/files/upload/PirkerDecision.pdf

The Judges decision was the FAA has no jurisdiction over sUAV's such as a Phantom.

UASolutions Group is two former FAA employees, one a lawyer and retired ATC controller, the other an Army helo pilot and unmanned aircraft brigade advisor. They will let you know what you can and can't do, and how to get into the skies legally.

Donde venden ese avioncito y ****** cuesta? me interesa mucho.

Para informacion on estos modelos aprete en los enlaces siguientes:

http://bhpho.to/1iVxaKZ

http://bhpho.to/1iVxsRW

Excellent and timely article.

My concern is about flying around the open skies over a large public park or beach.  I recently was flying my Phantom 2 in an empty park when someone walking their dog stopped to say that the buzzing sound was disturbing his dog, and may violate a noise ordinance.  I politely stopped flying, but wondered to myself 'if not here, where?'

Will flying along a public park or beach constitute a nuisance, much like that which a traditional fixed-wing RC aircraft would create in the same area?

I could use some insight; I'm planning on taking my Phantom 2 to a large park this weekend, and can imagine I'll be criticized by some bystanders as disrupting their solitude.

Thoughts?

What is the definition of "commercial" use? They article itsself states that when they drafted the current regulations, they certainly were not thinking about products such as the DJI Phantom but rather much larger scale air drones that I consider more "industrial" or "commercial grade". I'm not a large scale corporation, I am an independant contractor that ***** to make a living. This is just another tool for me to use to generate income for myself. So as long as I am using the equipment while not violating the FAAs (other than what they claim is commercial, but not clearly define), who are they to limit my ability to generate income for my family?

I'm sorry but until they put out some clear terms on what they define as "commercial" I'm going to try and use this as a tool help me produce more creative shots for my projects. If the FAA want to take me to court for it, so be it. Just as Pirker has appealed the fine issued by the FAA, they don't have enough of a leg to stand on, unless I'm flying recklessly, purposefully invading privacy, or just flat out using the darn thing in a harmful way.

Thank you for writing this article. You have a lot of great info in it. But sounds to me like the FAA is trying to scare the small video operations and independant people to not use these because they were blindsided by it all and not preppared to handle it. Like I said before, I can't afford to not jump on this opportunity to utilize this tool (because that's what it is to me).  

You could take the shots as a recreational user and then donate them to your project. Be sure to itimize them for record keeping. It seems that "commercial" is the key term. If you are just using it for a toy then you are a lot more free from prosecution.

From my understanding...you cannot charge a customer for taking aerial shots...but you can charge them if you have to "Edit" those shots in any way.

To update the article, the FAA has come out with guidance for hobbyists who fly drones and quadcopters. The Academy of Model Aeronautics mentioned in the article above has since reacted wtih objections to the FAA's late June release of the guidelines. Cliff Whitney, who owns Atlanta Hobby--one of the largest retailers for drones--and is also on the advisory board of the Academy of Model Aeronautics, estimates that nationwide 12,000 drones are sold each month. Thirty percent of those are "consumers" but many of them are hoping to make money from the pictures they take. The other 70 percent are folks intending to use the drones for "light" commercial use. Actually any photo or video taken from a drone for use in a "light" business or a "heavy" one is prohibited. Drone operators themselves are tightening the noose around free use of drones by very public incidents, like the person who flew a drone over a Pirates baseball game and was caught by police. The drone appeared in the paper the next day. That sort of thing leads to new pressures against drone use, in my opinion.

http://www.faa.gov/news/press_releases/news_story.cfm?newsId=16474

http://amablog.modelaircraft.org/amagov/2014/06/27/response-needed-to-fa...

In response to the gentleman who asked "What is comercial use?", the answer is "if you take money for it, it is commercial use."   The FAA has an additional training and certification process that separates commercial pilots from non-comercial pilots.

In answer to the question, "Who are they to limit my ability to generate income?", the answer is that the FAA is the licensing authority for all aircraft and pilots in the US.  Just like you  need a driver's license to drive a car, you need a pilot's license to fly a plane.  Just like you can't drive an unregistered vehicle on a public road, you can't fly in public airspace with an unregistered aircraft.  It's really that simple.

You can split hairs, but it's really about the non-FAA, non-UAV laws as mentioned in the article.  The FAA regs were developed to prevent pilots from infringing on the non-flying public's safety, privacy, and  pursuit of happiness.  That's why UAV operators need to be aware of, and follow, the same regulations as real pilots. 

Is it necessary to become a member of the AMA for flying in the USA with my Phantom2 ?

I am German  -I am member of the DMV.aero in Germany - and I am insured as well - world wide.

Who can answer this question ?

Hi Burmeister -

It is not necessary to join any organization in the USA to own or fly the DJI products we offer.  You will need to check locally for the German and European regulations.

Please contact us via e-mail if you have additional questions:  AskBH@BandH.com

Burmeister

What is needed to fly in Germany? can you post links to pont me in the right driection?

While the use of remote control aircraft is relatively new, please check with your local government’s Aviation regulatory agency to see what local laws apply.  For example, the German Avaiation Agency is the Luftfahrt-Bundesamt; they would be able to supply information about flight limits and legal areas you may fly your Quadcopter.

The flying of RC aircraft is not new.   People have been flying model aircraft since the 1930s.  The Academy of Model Aeronautics dates back to the mid 130s.  With RC Aircraft showing up in the 1940s.   So there is nothing new about flying RC Aircraft.

What has changed is the cost and the skill level required.   Just as home computers were rare because they were expensive and hard to operate so it has been with RC Aircraft.   But today they are inexpensive and with modern computerized controls children can fly them and thus today's problem.    Even people who appear to be adults are behaving like irresponsible children in the manner in which they fly.

I have to wonder about the "commercial purpose" issue. I recently saw a news article about a small company in California called Drone Dudes or something that were using quadcopters (large ones) for making commercial videos. Isn't that what would be considered a commercial purpose? How are they getting away with this?

The FAA considers and commercial usage--apart from the two aircraft approved for oil exploration in the Arctic--to be illegal. As to why they there are selective in enforcement, this is a question for the FAA. I know there are efforts to challenge the FAA on a number of fronts, so my guess is it's a case of them picking their battles.

Just watched your video with Jeff Cable showing videos and stills using a DJI Phantom II - really nice images and video. However, Jeff seemed to "gloss" over the point of the legality of using Quadcopter (Drones) for commercial purposes. He showed images and videos that he obviously was paid for and seemed to ignore the FAA ruling that states that these devices cannot be used for commercial purposes. Personally, I think the law is silly, but I think it's not very responsible to lead people into trouble. Hopefully, the FAA will modify the law soon but right now it's pretty clear cut. While the enforcement is selective - you REALLY don't want to be presented with a $10,000 fine (the current fine imposed). I'm ******** on the law changing, but have not integrated the Quads into our business model till the law is ironed out!

I would assume that a real estate photographer using a quad to capture photos and or video of a property for a home owner would NOT be violatng the airspace because the home owner owns the airspace rights. However,i'm sure they will get us on the privacy, noise, commercial use, breathing, etc. Yet another regulation that the government is enforcing on us but that is another forum.

The FAA has sued real estate Agents already unfortunately.

Real Estate is a commercial use.  Illegal.  No question about it.

Just to update this article, the NTSB ruled on 11/18/14 that the law does, in fact, give the FAA the authority to regulate UAS's just as any other form of manned aircraft.  This ruling came in reposnse to the FAA's appeal of the judge's decision in the Raphael Pirker case (see article above).  For more links to FAA decisions, see the blog post I wrote here. Bottom line is that they're still perfectly legal to fly as a hobbyist when you obey the restrictions for hobby and model aircraft but you canot do so for commercial purposes, i.e. you're getting paid, without prior approval from the FAA, flown by a certified pilot, and using a cerified aircraft.  I suspect these regulations will change soon, but for the moment that's the rules.

What are concerns as far as use for low budget independent film making?

Hi Rufus -

Again, commercial use is prohibited by FAA regulation.  If you charge for your services it is illegal.  If you are putting together a portfolio for yourself - no problem.  As far as operation/flight goes:  Practice!  Practice!  Practice!

Please contact us via e-mail if you have additional questions:  AskBH@BandH.com

Just curious what about model rockets and such... balloons etcs. do these laws apply to them? most model rockets go well over 400 feet but you dont see people making a fuss about those... and you cant even really control them like you can a drone.

Hi Matt -

Model rockets  and balloons are most often regulated by local statute.  One of the best resources regarding legal usage for model rocketry and balloonery (is that a word), that I am aware of is:

http://www.modelaircraft.org/

It is the single best repository of knowledge and opinion on the subjects.

Please contact us via e-mail if you have additional questions:  AskBH@BandH.com