Guide to the Next Generation of Hi-Fi Stereo Systems


Through the late 1980s and 1990s, while hip-hop and grunge music took over the airwaves, another revolution affected nearly every listener, manifested in the way they consumed their favorite songs. The home stereo system, once a modular system of silver-plated and vacuum-tube-driven components devoted to high fidelity, or Hi-Fi, was replaced by “mini-systems” and “boom boxes;” all-in-one solutions that were more cost effective and took up less space in the home. The compact disc was exploding in the retail world and reeling in customers to repurchase their music collections in digital formats, and the smaller, consumer-market home audio equipment that was available to play this new digital content was rapidly overshadowing the larger, higher-quality components, to conserve that space.

During the rise of home theater and DVDs, bringing surround sound into the living room did give consumers a path to continue purchasing modular stereo equipment (known as component equipment). Consumer demand for “home theater in a box,” with complete packages at low pricing, marginalized a majority of consumer audio component products on the market. Many manufacturers who made a variety of separate CD players, cassette players, turntables, and equalizers discontinued several of their models based on low consumer demand. If you were an audiophile, your options seemed to diminish as time went on.

Listening to music, from the artist's creativity to the depths of the sound recording itself, can be a passion for some listeners, and smaller computer speakers or a soundbar just won’t cut it for some people’s personal listening standards. Fortunately, in the past few years, this niche of audiophiles has grown and manufacturers have noticed—and are offering solutions. The timing couldn’t be better, as on-demand, high-resolution music downloads are available from several popular artists, online, for your convenience. And beat this: if you have vinyl records, it’s time to pull those out, because they’re making something of a comeback.

Where can you find high-resolution music?

With the days of CDs and cassettes long past, audiophiles generally turn to digital audio file formats to listen to their music. As music services like Google Play and Spotify only broadcast in MP3 or AAC file formats, which are lossy codecs (even at 320 Kbps), there are smaller and more niche services that cater to Hi-Fi enthusiasts to download their records. These smaller and niche websites offer compressed formats like FLAC and ALAC and sometimes uncompressed formats like WAV and AIFF, when available. These high-definition (HD) tracks can come at a premium price and have smaller availability, but what these files don’t do is sacrifice audio quality for a smaller file size. With Neil Young’s PONO service and a few others slated to come to market, the options will hopefully expand tremendously over the next few years.

For more information on file types and other related information on Hi-Fi, please see the B&H article, "Introduction to Portable Hi-Fi."

How do you store and play your music library?

Digital Analog Converters

Storage of audio files and their method of playback can vary from listener to listener, contingent on one's setup. Many choose the plug-in from their Digital Analog Converter interface (DAC) to their computer or mobile device via a USB connection. While this setup is relatively simple, it poses some questions for each user.

  • Do you need to connect an additional external hard drive to house your library and also connect that to your setup?
  • Is your computer or hard drive adding noise to your listening environment?
  • As sometimes aesthetics are important, does this setup look “disorganized?”

The term DAC generally refers to the entire device housing the prime conversion chip, similar to the way we sometimes call computers “CPUs,” even though a computer houses RAM, hard drives, and other parts besides the processor. So what does a DAC do? In simple terms, the DAC converts the 1’s and 0’s from the digital source into analog electric current so it can be sent to an amplifier. The DAC is the primary bridge between the digital and analog worlds for your music, so its job is critical—the more accurate detail in the signal it can convert, the more clarity and stereo depth your system can achieve.

As opposed to portable DACs, home Hi-Fi DACs generally require AC electrical outlets for power and can feature more of a variety of connectivity as well. Unlike network players, component DACs generally require a software media player to play the music file from your library. While Apple iTunes software works for some, there are several options on the market for Windows, Mac, and Linux, and depending on your platform, you may want to research the software choice that will be compatible with your own library.

Several manufacturers make component DACs, with their own take on how their company history and commitment make them the lead option. Generally, you’ll find all DACs have USB connectivity to, and analog RCA output options for, your amplifier or pre-amp (or pre-amplifier component like an equalizer). Beyond that, you can find digital connections like optical cable if you're using other digital equipment like computer sound cards. The frequency response and bit-rate of the conversion does vary from product to product, and is also one of the lead selling points in the range that's available on the market.

Cambridge Audio, a British company, offers the DacMagic 100 and the DacMagic Plus. Both of these products are related and are capable of up to 192 kHz of conversion. At first, the Plus would seem to simply offer more connectivity with XLR inputs, a headphone amp, and digital audio output options. However, under the hood, the DacMagic Plus features twin Wolfson WM8740 24-bit DAC converter chips to encode each channel separately for a wider stereo field with less crosstalk between the channels. 

The Zodiac and Zodiac+ from Antelope audio both use clocking and conversion technology developed for recording studios in a home-sized package for the Hi-Fi application. The Zodiac can convert up to 192 kHz and pays special attention to its internal clock. The Zodiac’s clock has a temperature-controlled housing so it can operate efficiently, as building heat would reduce its efficiency. Beyond the temperature control, this clock is also driven by a 64-bit algorithm to aid it in its timing adjustments to reduce jitter (distortion as a result of timing issues). The Zodiac+ expands upon these features by offering mute and mono settings, re-clocking on the digital outputs to reduce jitter even further, and also precise trim controls on the analog output controls.

Antelope isn’t the only professional audio company to transition to the audiophile market. Fostex has been making waves of its own with the HP-A8C, a 32-bit 192 kHz DAC that features quite a few choices for input options, including an SDHC card from which to play DSD media directly. This precision Asahi Kasei DAC’s all-discrete analog circuitry is paired with a temperature-controlled clock for precise conversion. Also, this model touts a high-end operational amplifier (op-amp) for the built-in, high-grade headphone amplifier, if you choose not to pair with a speaker amplifier.

Benchmark, a New York company that builds its products in the USA, touts the DAC2  Digital to Analog Converter. The unit features USB connectivity, a 0-Ohm reference-grade headphone amplifier, XLR and RCA inputs, and 24-bit 192 kHz conversion via a quad-balanced Sabre32 32-bit chip, native DSD playback, a built-in HPA2 (a separate Benchmark headphone amplifier product), and UltraLock2 Jitter attenuation.

Network Media Players

Besides the component DAC, some audiophiles choose a network media player or network receiver to play from a source. The advantage here is that you can use your local area network (LAN) wired or wirelessly to have your stereo set up in a different location than your computer setup. The network media player option raises questions for the listener.

  • What will be your network server and do you know how to configure it? Would you use a Network Attached Storage (NAS) drive?
  • Is the network media player or receiver compatible with the files in your library?
  • If it’s an all-in-one network media player, are you willing to forgo the customization with separate components for the convenience of one product?

Network media players start from a component-type product, with a DAC included, to a stereo receiver that is a network player as well. As some of these products can be equipped with Apple AirPlay and Bluetooth, keep in mind it’s really the DLNA certification that allows the connectivity to play your high-resolution files across your network. The range of these products can be vast, but here are a few examples.

A product with a small footprint, the Yamaha CRX-N560BL Network CD Receiver is an all-in-one network media player that includes Internet radio streaming options, a CD player with FLAC support, and Apple AirPlay support. It also includes a DAC and a built-in amplifier with 64 Watts (at 4 Ohms) per side of output for you to connect speakers directly.

A newly released option that also has a small footprint is the Cambridge Audio Minx XI Digital Music System. It can stream 24-bit 96 kHz of compressed or uncompressed files wirelessly from your computer music library via the companion iOS or Android App over DLNA. With its built-in speakers, or connecting to your own amplifier, it can also play from services like Spotify and Rhapsody, though those services don’t offer high-definition file streaming.

As mentioned above, you can also take the network receiver route, and purchase something like the Yamaha AVENTAGE RX-A740 7.2 Channel Network AV Receiver or Pioneer VSX-1130-K 7.2-Channel Network AV Receiver. The up side to these options is that they get you into the Hi-Fi game with fewer components, as the receiver houses the DAC and an amplifier. It also enables you to connect to your home theater setup if a separate audio setup isn’t possible. However, as with any network player, you still always need to check compatibility with your files, as each brand and model has different compatibility, and you want to ensure your library will play correctly.


Digital music may be the most popular option, but an interesting trend is the growing return of the turntable, also known as the "record player." Record stores are generally long gone, but availability has slowly crept back with old and new manufacturers responding to a newer market demand from consumers of all ages. While they have their own nostalgia, which may be part of the reason for their return, turntables are (by nature) analog and can reproduce frequencies well beyond CD quality, with the proper components.

Turntables comprise several components: a platter, driven by a belt or directly from a motor; a tone arm; and a cartridge, which holds the stylus, or needle. The balance of the platter, the material, and counterweight of the tonearm—even the material of the cartridge with the attached stylus—contribute to the sound reproduction that one can extract from a record. While the selection for turntables is much smaller than it was in the 1970s, several manufacturers have offerings that will meet your needs.

Music Hall Audio is a brand that offers a modern aesthetic in precise and elegant construction for its turntables. The mmf series features several concepts that cater to the Hi-Fi listener. The entry model, the mmf2.2, features a one-piece tonearm, an isolated asynchronous motor, and a two-speed pulley. The mmf5.1 takes this a step further by employing a 2-plinth design to aid in reduction of the operational vibration that affects sound pickups. It also features a Mojo cartridge (which is designed by Ortofon) and a Fritz Gyger FG70 Diamond Stylus for even more optimal pickup of audio. The flagship model mmf-11.1 is a premium choice, which has 4-plinth construction in which the tonearm is mounted on the second level, not the first. It also features magnetic-levitation isolation on the bottom plinth to further reduce vibrations, as well as the tone arm being made of carbon fiber, and a microprocessor-controlled flywheel fly system for optimal speed accuracy.

If you’re looking for more standard design, but great functionality, the Denon DP300f and the Pioneer PL-990 are both fully automatic belt-driven turntables with two speed options for 33 ⅓ and 45 rpm and manual tone-arm lifters. Both are great basic options, though the Denon does feature die-cast aluminum construction, as well as a built-in phono preamplifier.

What are good choices for speakers?

Speakers for Hi-Fi audio fall into one of two categories: active and passive. Passive speakers have been the general standard for speakers for years and require a separate amplifier to drive them. More recently, just like in the professional recording market, amplifiers have reduced in size and could be fit into the housings of the speakers themselves, to make the speakers self-powered, or active. Active speakers allow the manufacturer to control consistency from speaker to speaker so two people with the same speakers will have, generally, the same audio experience. However, most active speakers don’t allow you to bypass the internal amplifier, so you are not able to connect to an integrated amplifier, even if it is of superior quality.

Active Speakers

For active models, there is currently a smaller selection on the market. However, there are some notable models to investigate if this is the option for you. The Adam Audio Artist series ranges over several sizes and configurations and even offers a few colors. Adam’s primary specialty in this series is their X-ART ribbon tweeter and carbon fiber woofer combination, which are powered via bi-amplification. Ribbon tweeters, Adam Audio’s trademark, are generally difficult to build, yet have been crafted with such precision that they extend the Artist’s frequency range up to 50 kHz.

AudioEngine offers a few models for the budding audiophile as well, which are the AudioEngine A2+ (which also features a built-in DAC) and the A5+. These models offer Kevlar woofers and silk tweeters and feature 60 Watts peak and 150 Watts peak, respectively. These speakers are magnetically shielded to stop magnetic interference from the driver from affecting adjacent computing equipment.

Finally, there's the Paradigm A2 powered speaker, which is available in several color options. It is bi-amplified, with 50 Watts each being delivered to the woofer and the tweeter. Besides the intricate design, these speakers offer an Airport Express input on the rear as well as BD-1 optional Bluetooth for wireless connections to the speaker.

Passive Speakers

Passive speakers have been updated with several innovations in engineering and design over the past few decades. In home Hi-Fi, speaker preferences truly cater to the listener and the style of music to which they are listening. Several manufacturers offer models for floor-standing and bookshelf speakers.

JBL continues to make a varied selection of options for the home and this company’s L-Series gives a range of options. From the top L890 model to the bookshelf L830, all the models feature PolyPlas cones with a cast-aluminum chassis for the main drivers, pure titanium domes on the high transducers, and mylar domes on the ultra-high transducers. They increase in frequency response in each model up in the series and are also available in cherry or black on each model.

For more floor-standing options, a good option is the Klipsch Reference series. These speakers feature cerametallic woofers and 1" titanium horn-loaded tweeters with TracTrix Horn Technology, which is designed for a higher output using less energy. The RP-250F offers dual 5.25" woofers, the RP-260F has 6.5" woofers, and the RP-280F sports 8" woofers. These are touted to have less distortion at higher volumes, and they increase in power handling for each model up, with the RP-280F topping out at 150 Watts RMS at 8 Ohms.

Boston Acoustics offers the M series, which features floor and shelf speakers. The M25B is a viable shelf speaker option, featuring a 5.25" woofer and a 1" extended wide-bandwidth dome tweeter with a dimple in the middle to reproduce even higher frequencies. The lo-Q cabinet is built to limit vibrations so it can be put on table, shelf, or stand with fewer coupled vibrations affecting the sound.

What kind of amplifiers do you want to power your speakers?

In the home Hi-Fi market there are two varieties of amplifiers from which listeners can choose. There are headphone amplifiers and integrated stereo amplifiers. Headphone amplifiers are designed for listeners who want to listen to music with their personal monitors, like headphones, in their isolated environment. Unlike portable versions, home stereo headphone amplifiers like the Grado RA1 and the Music Hall ph25.2 have models that require AC current as a power source.

Integrated amplifiers are the primary component that drive a set of speakers. Basically, they’re similar to the traditional “stereo receiver,” except there is no AM/FM radio tuner built in. As opposed to a vacuum-tube-based amp from decades ago, these amplifiers are solid state and have printed circuits on cards inside. When the technology was newer, there was a stigma against solid-state equipment; however, over the last couple of decades, advancements in this solid-state technology allow for very high fidelity in a compact amplifier package and a variety of models are available from several manufacturers.

While Yamaha has paid attention to the audiophile market with its Aventage series of receivers, nothing shows more dedication to this customer than the release of the Yamaha A-S3000. With its analog metering and retro design, it packs 100 Watts per channel at 8 Ohms, designed with a toroidal transformer for zero transmission loss, and is symmetrically laid out to have short runs for signal to ensure less signal-to-noise ratio. It also features a floating and balanced power amplifier with MOSFET design. 

It’s you’re looking for a range of integrated amps, TEAC has a variety to fit a range of placements in the audiophile market. As a brand that was involved in the first era of Hi-Fi in the 1970s in the United States and Japan, the company continues to flourish with this new range of Hi-Fi products.

The TEAC AI-3000 is the flagship and it features a whopping 300 Watts per channel at 4 Ohms, to drive even the largest home speakers. It touts a discrete dual mono analog amplifier circuit design, so there is no crosstalk between the left and right channels. This amplifier also features a toroidal core power transformer; in each circuit there is also mono, eliminating any electrical interference. TEAC has two other versions in the series, the AI-1000 and AI-2000, if you’re looking for an entry- or mid-level version of the amplifier.

Onkyo offers the A-9070 and A-9050 integrated amplifiers to drive your speakers with clarity. Both models feature 3-stage inverted Darlington Circuitry, which is a patented design in which one amplifier feeds another and shares a common collector. In short, it can reduce distortion and size simultaneously. Both models do feature a built-in Wolfson DAC if you have a digital source to connect to it via coaxial or optical. The 9050 is rated at 75 watts per channel at 4 Ohms; the 9070 is 140 watts per channel at 4 Ohms.


If you’re a music enthusiast, but you're listening to your laptop in your home or apartment as your music center, you should take a moment to really investigate the options available to you. No matter what genre is your preference, so much attention is put into the creativity and audio engineering behind music—it can only be realized on a true Hi-Fi stereo system. Options and marketing information can scatter one in different directions, as everyone’s ears are different, yet now there’s a good range of options that make it possible for anyone with interest to invest in Hi-Fi stereo equipment for their home. You can build a system to your liking, or simply buy a network player and powered speakers for your living room. The true reward will be music to your ears.



I find it convenient to play my whole music collection in a random program from an external hard drive attached to my computer. I rip all my CDs into .wav files and play them with a USB to VLC media player out through optical audio output into the input of my Cambridge Audio DAC and from there into my old but still fine sounding Harmon-Kardon AVR-10.

But it would be nice to not have to turn on the computer in the night to do this and I hear a new generation of receivers have one or two Toslink inputs into which I could plug my external hard drive directly and play everything on that machine randomly. But having bought an old Pioneer DVR (still going) with a jukebox whose programmer's idea of a shuffle play program was one and only one list, played identically every time I power up the machine, I'm cautious. Which receiver today plays the best random program... a different one every time. I like to be surprised.

Aloha, I'm purging a lot of my stuff that I just haven't been able to part with over the years. I have a pair of Dynamic Acoustic Corp. speakers (Model BSTL 11-3/4" square) that I'm finally parting ways, as I don't know if I'll ever set up my stereo system again. Do you know where I can find out the value of these vintage speakers?

Audition is a social-media(sic) site for audiophiles. It has an audio blue book you can reference. This be a good start. If course, ymmv depending t on where you live.

Hello I have a Yamaha A-s701 amplifier and usually  play cds records, but i was looking to use my laptop to play some records in flac format can you tell me what is the best way to conect it also if its necesarry a dac in between??

My 300 disc CD changer finally died and I am looking for a new way to store and access my music library. I want High def sound and am tired of the poor quality sound of Pandora itunes, or Spotify. I have considered buying a PONO player, downloading my CDs on it and hooking it up to my stereo system. Is there a better way to store and play high quality music on a home system?

Hi Robert - 

Not really.  The PonoPlayer from PonoMusic is a convenient and economical way to to archive and access your entire CD collection:

At CD quality, the 64GB internal memory can store up to 5000 tracks at full CD resolution:  CD lossless quality recordings: 1411 kbps (44.1 kHz/16-bit). Inserting a 128GB microSDXC Memory Card will allow you to store an additional 10,000 tracks for a total of approximately 15.000 tracks, all in the palm of your hand.



I am in the same situation you were. What did you end up doing? Thanks.

Hi Mark - my wife and I are building a new house, and want to to put in a whole house stereo system with wall and ceiling speakers. We're counting upwards of 12 inside speakers, as well as 4 exterior speakers, and we wish to control the room volumes individually from a centrally located closet. Maximum distance of speaker wire would be about 50 feet. Without much more than a Best Buy in this town, I don't even know where to start. Ultimately I woud like to play vinyl and digital music (apple). I found some info on commercial 70 amp systems on the internet, but I'd rather use the old Kenwood tuner/amp. However, I don't know what else I need to buy that would be compatible with our wish list. Can you guide us on suggestions on necessary components and wire size?
Regards, Will in Anchorage


Hi William -

Commercial 70 or 100 volt systems are not generally used in the home.  They are not designed to reproduce the kind of hi-fi audio you would be expecting. Your old Kenwood component(s) will not drive more than two or three pairs of quality stereo speakers safely or efficiently with any acceptable  degree of audio quality.  For speaker runs of 50' or less 18AWG oxygen free speaker cable or larger may be used.I would strongly recommend enlisting the help of a local integrator to offer you some on-site advice and a survey/list of components. 


Hi , I wish to design seater  70  Mini Theatre in India  with Wireless Headphones for each audience.There will not be any sound except in headphone.Can you please guide me how to go ahead.

Ideas on using products with Product name are highly appreciated.

Hi Sunil -

Use this combination:

Listen to your favorite music wirelessly from up to 300' away with the RS 120 II Wireless Stereo Headphone System from Sennheiser. The RS 120 is an open, supra-aural wireless RF headphone system that is designed to produce well-balanced sound with enhanced bass response from all types of music and TV applications. It features volume and tuning controls on the device itself. Additionally, the RS 120's "easy recharge" function on its transmitter base enables you to charge the headset while it's being stored.

And additional headsets:

The Sennheiser HDR 120 RF wireless headphones are an inexpensive supplementary or expansion set, operating in the 863MHz or 926MHz variant frequency range, and designed for use with Sennheiser's RS 120 Hi-Fi or television wireless headphone monitoring system. These headphones feature extended low frequency reproduction, a supra-aural, open-back design, and NiMH rechargeable battery operation with a 20 - 25 hr. battery life.

I renovated a home and installed some high quality in wall speakers. Up until this point I have used a laptop to run iTunes with my external hard drive connected to it, and then through my stereo receiver to the speakers. I would like to streamline this and eliminate the laptop and ideally be able to control my library via my phone.  How can I make this happen.  I would like my amplifier hidden and connected to my whole library so that I do not have to navigate using the laptop. Is this possible? Thank you in advance for your help.


Check out Naim Audio's Uniti range - world class sound, connectivity, outstanding design from one the the greatest brands in audio (despite the fact most have never heard of them, they've been leading the pack for 40 years). The app that runs the system is absolutely brilliant. You can stream, listen to i-radio, use either Spotify or better yet, Tidal, USB music can be accessed and you get BT. Yopu can even plug things in using cables. Disclosure: I'm a Naim dealer in little ol' New Zealand, but you should still check out the brand. It's a wonderful product to represent, which I've done for ten years.

I'm in the process of building  a new house and there isn't really a sufficient amount of room for a complete home entertainment system on the first floor of the house where the TV will be.  In my current house I have a small cabinet underneath the TV that contains a cable box, a DVD player, a slingbox, and an amplifier to drive the surround sound speakers.  In my new house that we're building, the primary TV will be mounted on a wall above a gas fireplace and there is no place to put the cabinet that I am currently using to hold all these other components.  This is a new construction house so I have the ability to put in wiring now any way I want it before the house is completed.  What's the best way to do this?  Does it make sense to think of putting a centralized home entertainment system in the basement of the house?


This is a great idea so that the components are not visible in the new room.  HDMI, CAT5, and Speaker wire will be the most commonly used wires which can be run inside the walls and connected to outlets near where you will have the television and speakers if they too will be wall mounted.  It is also recommended to speak with your contractor or electrician so they can get the correct shielded cable and outlet plates for your house. 


I need a symple stereo system , as light as possible. I ll use it at home to plug tv, dvd, cd, smart phone, etc. Can you recomend what is needed for a good sound experience?


About to buy new hifi but bewildered with all that's out there looking at quad Artera set up or yamaha amplifier and sacd player the yamaha has tone controls, I like to play my vinyl records so I could tweek the tone if necessary can't decide need help all advice welcome what to do ? 

Hi David -

QUAD Artera products are not sold at B&H, but they certainly seem to be top-shelf products.  Contact us at the e-mail address below with your basic room dimensions, speakers, and budget preferences.  We will be very happy to offer recommendations for selecting your next Hi-Fi system.

Please contact us via e-mail if you have additional questions:  [email protected]

I would like to find a turn table, cd player, and whatever else is needed. I'd like to stack everything, and have speakers that don't take a lot of room. I am now in my 50s and am looking for what we had in the 1970s. So much being sold is tacky and /or weird. I had pioneer (until it went into a garage sale) which was considered good then. Is Pioneer still in business? Cost isn't a really a factor. I am so confused. I have looked for 2 years and still have nothing!

Mark S wrote:

Hi Janet -

You will need:

Receiver:   Pioneer Elite SX-N30 Network Stereo Receiver


                  Yamaha R-S700 Natural Sound Stereo Receiver

Speakers:  JBL L830 Studio L 3-Way 6" 150-Watts Bookshelf Speaker Pair - Black

CD Player:  Yamaha CD-C600 5-Disc CD Changer

Turntable:  Pioneer PL-30-K Stereo Turntable

Please contact us via e-mail if you have additional questions:  [email protected]

I have a 32 yr old Fisher component system with gigantic remote speakers. The system contains an amplifier, cd player, equalizer, turntable and tuner  and dual cassette tape player. The sound has been incredible, even after all of these years. I'm not sure of the least 100 W (could be more) Recently the amplifier for one of the channels seems to have died. I want to replace the system with an equal or better one, sound-wise. I can salvage the turntable if a replacement will connect to it. I can also salvage my speakers and CD player and tuner...again if the new system will also connect with those. Alternatively, I am open to a brand new system with superior sound quality and output, that will allow me to connect my turntable, and also has an iPod dock.


Any suggestions would be greatly appreciated.


I have one of those old Fisher Systems also, have 4 huge speakers with it, still sounds great but starting to have some problems with it. Am also looking for something new, maybe more compact and something that is compaitable with I-pod and USB. Don't know where to begin or what is out there anymore.


I'm at  digital - analog crossroad now.

Have a 10 year old Yamaha AX-496 amp with Jamo E855 speakers that perform very well. Have Yamaha CD changer CDC-585, a Yamaha tape deck too. They make a good system for my taste.

Have now ripped all CDs into lossless format and they reside in a Toshiba Stor-E TV NAS. This has RCA, optical and coax output in addition to HDMI out.

Have added a SMART TV with optical out plus analog.

 And our telecom company have provided a IPTV STB with optical out in addition to RCA and HDMI.

Happy listening even now with all above connected to my amp with analog RCA connections using good quality cables.

My first question is if to upgrade to an integrated amp with optical / coax inputs and network capabilities OR get a DAC to hookup all my devices except tape deck and use my current amp.

If upgrade is the answer the above question, being tuned to  Yamaha I have their R-N602 in my mind.

Another question is because R-N602 is a stereo receiver not an amp would it be inferior to their integrated amplifers say A-S501? Yamaha amps do not have network capabilities. Maybe I can sacrifice the LAN if amps are better than steroe receivers.

Sorry, I did not check back on this page earlier. Went in for a iFi Audio Nano DAC for my iTunes. They sound so much better now with the same system described above. Now my tube amp kit is on its way from Japan. Hope to get back to olden days sound.  

Your iniatial comment that cd's are a thing of the past. I would put it to you that they are vastly superior to

Apples mp3 encoded music, which is pleasant enough  , but no comparriso, with cd or vinyl'

As for High reolution audio , if i have to pay for it , duh! why not just buy the cd, you can hold it in your hand ,read notes,you have an investment in reality.

In answer to your question "why not just buy the CD" - CD quality downloads are invariably much less expensive than the CD, so I can afford to buy more music!

Also, on my system (Oppo 105D blu-ray player with USB DAC input, into Geithain RL906 active loudspeakers) they also sound much better than playing the CD. However I still buy the CD if I can't get a download - and I agree with you that it's nice to read the notes.

But I never play my CDs - I download them and play the files through the USB DAC input for better soun quality. 

Hi Jaime -

Thanks for your input, Jaime.  Much appreciated!

Please contact us via e-mail if you have additional questions:  [email protected]

Thanks for an enlightening article that does clear up many things, but I am confused about one thing: I have an old pair of Klipsh Heresy speakers with 8 ohms impedance, does that mean that, for instance, I couldn't hook them up the Onkyo amps?

Many thanks

Hi Alberto -

These ONKYO amplifiers are compatible with speakers rated from 4-8 ohms.  They can drive your Heresys.

Please contact us via e-mail if you have additional questions:  [email protected]

My setup.

Cambridge amp + Cambridge DAC connected to my PC via a MAC TV. My music os recorder on external drives in AIFF format. I use wireless with a high speed connection.

My questions:

- Is there a noise coming from the motherboard ? What type should I use to be optimal ?

- What is the optimal sound card to record the CD on my external drives ?

- Will I have a better sound if I connect the component directly instead of wireless ? And if yes what type of cables should I use from my router to the PC and between the PC and the DAC ?

- If I stay wireless what is the best wireless card to use ? Is the MAC TV a good interface wuth my HIFI system ?

Thanks a lot.


Hi Rossie -

You may want to start troubleshooting very basically.  First check all electrical connections and outlets for damage, bad cables, connectors, etc.  Plug the entire system into a different outlet on a different circuit breaker from what you are currently using.  Try to isolate each component to determine thjsource of the "noise".  If you cannot determine the source of the problem, find a local authorized technician who can test and evaluate your gear.

Please contact us via e-mail if you have additional questions:  [email protected]

"DAC Converter Chip"

Digital to Analog Converter Converter Chip.

The DRD (Department of Redundancy Department) would like to congradulate you on your wonderful use of accronyms.

Anyway, I have a serious issue with all of these very high sampling rates (96kHz and 192kHz.) I'm sure a few so called audiophiles will disagree, but a sampling rate over 48 kHz will have no effect on perceptible sound. According to the Nyquist-Shannon sampling theorem, you can reconstruct a bandlimited signal perfectly provided it is sampled at twice the highest frequency component. Now humans hear up to about 20kHz, so you would have to sample at 40kHz to reconstruct down to 20kHz. When recording, you need an antialiasing filter to bandlimit your signal, other wise you get this effect called aliasing where high frequency components are sampled in a way that they seem like low frequency components, mucking up your recorded audio. Unfortunately, antialiasing filters must be made in analog (before the ADC) so it's difficult to make a great one with quick roll off, minimum phase, and good attenuation, with little to no passband ripple on top of that. What that means, is that the people coming up with the standards for audio decided on 44.1kHz to 48kHz sampling rates to allow for a 2kHz transition band when designing the filter. This is necessary to preserve the high frequencies (18-20kHz.)

Anything above 48kHz simply requires more power, more storage, more wasted internet bandwidth, and can actually increase noise through internal interference, poorly designed converters, and a myriad of other issus. Why use a higher sampling rate then? It makes it easier for the designer, and it's a good marketing ploy. Higher is better right? Our DACs have a higher sampling rate, a higher cost, and higher THD!


The higher sampling rates make it easier to design an antialiasing filter without excessive phase distortion. I found many of the early CDs to suffer from this in a way that resulted in some really strange effects where things like cymbals (all highs) to jump out at you, since the auditory system (i.e. your ears and brain) uses phase to determine the direction the sound is coming from.

I believe that modern recording methods use very high sampling rates after a very simple analog anitaliasing filter and then digitally process the samples to produce the 44khz digital data.

This is not an argument for issuing the recording with the higher sample rates--I agree that sample rate won't make an appreciable difference.

Higher sampling resolution can make a difference, however, since, when recording faint signals, the distortion due to the 16 bit digitization can be an appreciable percentage of the signal. Not that my 71 year old ears are going to hear it, either.

Please folks. Before you get suckered into the Golden Ears cult read these two important articles that a lot of dealers and sellers won't tell you. I'm not trying to sound like a gloomy gus, but you need to venture seriously into the so called high end audio world. and the follow-up here... Then you will be well informed and know whether your CD or DVD dollar is well spent as well as what itvreally takes to notice vthat high end quality. 

Re the Yamaha A-S3000 you say:  " ensure less signal-to-noise ratio."

You actually want more signal in the S/N ratio, not less. 

The S is the good part of sound. The noise is the bad part. The higher the signal's dB value, relative to the accompanying noise dB value, the better. The reverse is not true. 

Perhaps you wish to simply say " insure less noise."


I wrote a cynical commentary here a year ago, and the situation just seems to be getting worse. Audiophiles who lived thru the 1970's experienced a golden age-- where highfidelty music reproduction in the home was widely available at a reasonable price, even to average non-enthusiast consumers, who didn't appreciate it. Now, it's all about miniaturization and portability. Discussions revolve around computer storage technology, not accurate reproduction of a sound field-- you know, music. For me, as a former designer of loudspeakers, the most important link in the audio chain, the situation has become deplorable. Forget the 70's! Folks are listening to music more in line with 1940's era standards. Oh, well....sit back, take a selfie, watch a singing cat video from the link on Facebook, and marvel at the awesomeness eminating from your new soundbar.

There is more snake oil going around today in the audio world since it went digital than ever before. Imagine, they use 0's and 1's and claim they can do all kinds of upsampling, conversions, and improve the original audio source. It ain't true, and any one who tells you that it is should show you the graphic measurements and prove it. It is not up to you to prove it doesn't sound better, it is up to the seller to prove it with data. And have it verified by an engineer or someone in the field if possible. Neil Young is older than me and I'm 62. yet he claims he can hear the difference in high rez files. Ha! The range of human hearing decreases with age, and that will never change. The outer shape of the ear, whether you are a male or female, and your room acoustics. All these things matter. But cable is something that has been proven over and over again NOT to make anything more than a minimal difference. Don't get suckered in people. There are a lot of shysters in high end audio. Stick to reputable firms that are recommended in Audio Forums, and beware magazine reviews. 

This is one article everyone should read before falling for high definition audio. If it souds better than what you have on CD, it's not because of the format, but for entirely different reasons, like better masters and less dynamic compression. Having a 192kHz/24bit-capable DAP makes sense if you're in music production - or if you are a geek and want to be able to play just about anything; buing music in this format on the other hand is just a waste of space and money.









I guess that by holding on to the "golden era" of stereo components, I am saving a bundle on new equipment that has yet to wow me with its sound fidelity. Though I have converted all my vinyl and cassettes to CDs for portability convenience, I still have my Bang & Olufsen Beogram 1700 turntable, Harman/Kardon CD491 cassette deck, Numark EQ2400 graphic EQ, powered through a Carver C-5 Preamplifier and Carver TFM25 Power Amp to a pair of DBX Soundfield 10 speakers. The only thing I had to do since I got the speakers in 1987, was replace the speaker cone foam rings and that was a simple DIY project. I have a 5.1 Yamaha/Boston system for my video, but it doesn't come close to the full dynamic range of sound the old analog system does. For playing my audio CDs I use an old Panasonic DVR/DVD recoder/player that is hooked up to the analog sound system. i will hold on to that system until it conks out!

I play all my iMac audio through a simpler audio system comprising of a Denon amp, Teac graphic EQ on Mission 700 speakers. That system sounds as best as expected but then again, it's in my studio as a secondary audio. Though I could play CDs on my iMac, I prefer to play them on a Sony CD player, popping a CD into my iMac only when I want to transfer music to my iPhone. I still burn CDs of any music I download, using iTunes to convert M4A (newer versions of MP3s) or Waves to AIFF files and use Toast to burn the CDs. I just like to have a physical backup, though these CDs will not last forever either.

I too long for the days of being able to stroll into an audio store and drool at the components lining the shelves and planning the next upgrade…

And don't get me started on the pleasures of ritualistically unwrapping a new vinyl record!

Thanks for the memories.





I suspect like many people, I use my PC/laptop as a media device to play music files direct, then output via HDMI to my TV.  This then outputs via RCA back into  my traditional seperates system, an amp or an AV amp.

In this setup what is performing the role of the DAC - the laptop, decoding the music and sending via HDMI, or does the TV receive a pure unaltered source signal, and do the DAC conversion there before outputting to my stereo?

I think I'm asking whther I need to upgrade/improve spec of my TV's audio converson, or buying a better audio card/ensuring my laptop has a better audio chip?

Similarly my phone outputs via 3.5mm to RCA input on traditional amp.

I'm looking to replace the Amp - without spending a fortune, should I just be looking at maybe aa amp with built in BlueTooth to eiminate the RCA?  

If on both of the above situations, the TV, latop or phone is doing the DAC, then I do not need an amp with built in DAC - is that correct?

Can yo recommend a single unit for my situation that would improve signal throughout the chain, whilst staying within a lower end budget, say $300





Hi Dom -

Generally speaking televisions do not have quality audio circuitry.  The most advanced audio feature today's televisions offer may be their digital optical audio outputs (Toslink). Adding a DAC  with up-to-date technology may be the  best move for you. It will provide superior specs over most computers or other components you might use. 

Many home entertainment products these days provide an abundance of features, be they Blu-ray players, TVs and set top boxes, or computers. What they often lack is a high end converter when decoding audio signals. For music devices that have a digital output, the DacMagic 100 from Cambridge Audio significantly improves the sound quality of these units by providing two channels of high end digital to analog conversion. The result is audio with greater detail, sparkling clarity, and reduced distortion.

The unit features the very latest digital to analog converter that delivers studio-master-quality audio from sources up to 24-bit/192 kHz. USB implementation also means high-resolution digital audio files stored on a computer can be shared with a Hi-fi for a level of sound quality far in excess of CD. Three different digital connectivity options are available (coaxial and optical S/PDIF and USB) providing the ability to connect four devices simultaneously. An easy set-up makes the DacMagic 100 a true digital music enhancement hub.

Digital to analog converter featuring S/PDIF and TOSLink digital inputs and USB audio input (all 24-bit compatible)

Wolfson WM8742 24-bit DAC

24-bit/96 kHz driverless USB Audio 1.0 input

24-bit/192 kHz USB Audio 2.0 input with ASIO or kernel streaming modes

Asynchronous USB transfer for very low jitter

USB audio input allows streaming of up to 24-bit/192 kHz audio from computer

USB audio input allows the DacMagic 100 to act as a high quality DAC/soundcard for a computer

RCA phono audio output

Full metal casework design with thick brushed aluminum front panel

Please contact us via e-mail if you have additional questions:  [email protected]

Dear Sir or Madame, thank you for advice in advance! Recently, I receive a gift from one of my friends "DBX 3BX dynamic expander" this component from 70's, which reminds me my youth when you want it, but can't afford it... Now years passed by and I got it, but don't see the reason to use it for anything. My question is if this device is still useful? I have " Onkyo 9050" amp and use it as preamp because each channel connected to monoblock power amps. Sources are turntable with Grado reference cartridge ( 10-60 frequency response and 40 channel separation), and SACD player ( Onkyo also), plus according to Onkyo amp- frequency response is 10 to 100. DBX expander frequency response 20 to 20 ( I understand that that is optimal parameters for the human hearing). Regardless of human ability to hear, is there any reason to use that DBX ( which I was so wanted at those days). Honestly, I didn't hear any difference with or without it or maybe I am doing something wrong with settings. Please help.

 Sincerely,  Sam 



Hi Sam -

The dbx dynamic expanders are terrific devices but will not provide much improvement, unless you are playing older vinyl records and cassette tapes that have been recorded without any Dolby headroom (HX Pro) enhancements. It works by increasing the dynamic range of audio sources with poor signal-to-noise ratios. It should work very well with old VCR tapes however.

Please contact us via e-mail if you have additional questions:  [email protected]

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