Video / Buying Guide

Buying Guide to Projectors


As with so many consumer products these days, selecting a projector can be a walk in the park when you are armed with the correct informaiton—there are just so many options. Choosing the right projector is a pretty simple process as long as you know these prerequisites:

  1. The screen size (width, most importantly).
  2. Distance between the projector and the screen (throw distance).
  3. An estimate of the amount of ambient light present in the room in which the projector will be used.

At this point you might be thinking, “Great. But I can't answer any of those questions." Or, "I plan to take my projector on the road and could be using it anywhere." Often, with a little forethought, the “I don't know” can be whittled down to a fairly good educated guess. If not, you are not completely out of luck. In addressing each topic, we will suggest your best bet when confronted with unknowns.

What is a projector?

A projector may be best thought of as an inverted camera, spitting light out of a lens rather than receiving it. For the sake of this buying guide, we will be considering digital projectors—that is, projectors with video inputs that serve a similar function to a TV or computer monitor while offering a number of benefits, including the ability to produce much larger image sizes and easy portability. The principles I will outline below apply to all types of projectors. However, it will help to start by dividing digital projectors into four categories:

  1. Pocket, also called "pico"
  2. Home theater
  3. Multimedia
  4. Large venue and fixed installation (a subset of multimedia)

Obviously there will be overlap, and not all models will fit easily into a particular category. For example, home theater and multimedia projectors are very similar. In most cases, it will be clear from your application which type you need. Boardroom presentations: this will be multimedia. In a living room: home theater. For a lecture hall, seating 500 people: large venue. Ultra-portable, where a small screen size is acceptable: pocket or pico projector.

Pocket Projectors

Pocket projectors are still a relatively new technology. Although some would require a fairly large pocket, they are small enough to hold in your hand, and often can be mounted on a tabletop tripod, as well. Because they use LED lamps, they aren’t very bright: 25 to 1500 lumens. In comparison, multimedia projectors typically range from 2500 to 4500 lumens (higher if we included fixed installation). This makes them useful as an alternative to carrying a monitor or TV around, but they won't really cut it if your intention is to present to a group of more than a few people. Until recently, pocket projectors have been regarded as more of a novelty—a fun consumer item—than a serious display technology. However, as LED lamps improved, the capabilities of pico projectors have increased and they are starting to encroach upon the portable segment of the multimedia projector market.

Another notable limitation common to pocket projectors is the lack of a zoom lens. This means that the only way you can control image size is by physically moving the projector closer or farther away from the screen. If you favor compact form factor over brightness and zoom, a pico may be right for you. If not, you are probably a candidate for a multimedia projector.

Multimedia Projectors

Multimedia projectors represent the largest category, and are the most widely sold at B&H (close to 900 models, currently). Multimedia projectors are general purpose, and are used for everything from giving PowerPoint presentations to screening video clips and slideshows at weddings. They are typically considered portable, weighing from 3 pounds for the ultra-slim models and going up from there, and their brightness ranges from 2500 to 4500 lumens or so. Apart from the special sub-category of short-throw and ultra-short throw, they virtually always have zoom lenses. However, the zoom range is usually shorter than that of their home theater counterparts: 1.2x to 1.5x (compared to 2x in the home-theater realm). This means special care needs to be taken when choosing, to make sure the screen size is compatible with the projector's throw ratio. Multimedia projectors virtually always have VGA and composite video inputs, and most models now feature HDMI, as well. In some cases, a DVI-D port will be provided instead of HDMI, but an HDMI device can still be connected using an inexpensive adapter. Similarly, DVI devices can be connected to a projector with only HDMI using a DVI to HDMI cable or adapter.

Common resolutions for multimedia projectors are SVGA (800 x 600), XGA (1024 x 768), WXGA (1280 x 800), and WUXGA (1920 x 1200), with 4K gaining ground. The most popular resolution is WUXGA, and is well suited for PowerPoint presentations, as well as high-definition video.

Short Throw Projectors

Although most multimedia projectors have a built-in zoom lens, an important subcategory is short throw and ultra-short throw. Generally, a throw ratio of less than 1:1 is considered short throw. The most common throw ratios are 0.5:1 and 0.3:1, with the latter fulfilling the distinction of being "ultra-short throw." Short throw projectors almost never have zoom lenses, and in many cases they use a mirror onto which the image is projected first, before being reflected at the screen. They are typically wall rather than ceiling mounted, and are designed to be installed very close to the screen: 18 inches to 2 feet. Short throw projectors are most often used in classrooms, and are ideal for pairing with digital whiteboards. One might be tempted to place a short throw projector farther back than the recommended couple of feet, as a way to achieve a very large image in a small space (assuming sufficiently low ambient light levels, of course). This probably won't work, since short throw projectors keystone severely when used outside their recommended throw distance range, and will require some very creative mounting to produce an undistorted image. Because they are meant for smaller screen sizes (8 feet wide or less), short throw projectors normally top out at 3000 lumens. If you need a brighter projector and have limited space, you will need to look at a fixed installation projector with interchangeable lenses instead.

Home Theater Projectors

True home theater projectors—as opposed to multimedia/home theater crossovers, which from a feature perspective can be treated as multimedia projectors—place the emphasis on image quality above all else. They rarely get brighter than 2500 lumens (though this seems to be changing), and have the most zoom of any projector type that uses built-in lenses. They are intended for use in a living room, or perhaps small screening room, where the ambient light can be controlled completely. They use either DLP or LCoS imaging technology, almost never three LCD, and will generally give you the best-looking picture of all types, assuming you use them in complete darkness and at a sensible throw distance.

Home theater projectors often feature low-voltage control (LVC), so that turning the projector on or off can trigger the screen to rise or descend, or open and close if it is a fixed frame covered by drapes. To achieve the quietest possible operation, they have more efficient—or more elaborate—cooling systems, making them relatively bulky and, in some cases, unable to support inverted installation. They are also the most expensive type of projector, relative to specifications. Virtually all are Full HD or 4K (true DCI 4096 x 2160 4K, in fact). Be careful, though. Companies often lump what are essentially restyled multimedia projectors into the home theater category. Telltale signs are high lumen ratings (more than 3000 lumens), VESA rather than HD video native resolutions (such as WXGA and WUXGA), and zoom that's shorter than 2x.

If you want a great picture, can block out all ambient light, and are working with a screen size of up to 100 inches or so, home theater projectors are a great choice. Otherwise, you may have to consider a brighter multimedia projector, even if you plan to use it in a home theater setting.

Fixed Installation and Large Venue Projectors

Fixed installation and large venue projectors are often included together with multimedia projectors. They are the brightest type available in the consumer market, starting at around 4500 lumens and going up to 20,000 or more. Installation projectors are not generally considered portable, and take time to set up. In most cases, they feature interchangeable-lens systems, making them the most adaptable in terms of throw distance. They are normally used in lecture halls, movie theaters, houses of worship, stadiums, and other similar settings that require screening for large groups. In addition to large screen sizes, they are used in settings where ambient light can't be controlled. Many also support stacking, meaning the output from two or more projectors can be aggregated to increase the brightness beyond what a single projector can achieve.

Because of their weight and the nature of the lens systems they use, in most cases, installation projectors should be specced out by an integrator, and require installation by a professional.

Now we come to implementing the three pieces of information mentioned earlier.

Why do screen size and throw distance matter? Or: What is throw ratio?

Projectors have a very important specification called "throw ratio." Throw ratio is a specification that is determined by the first two pieces of information in the equation:

  1. How far the projector is from the screen (throw distance)
  2. How wide the screen is.

For example, if your screen is 10 feet wide and the projector is 15 feet away, you will need a lens that covers a throw ratio of 1.5:1.

The first step in choosing a projector, therefore, is pinning down how wide the screen is and how far the projector can be placed from the screen—once you've done this, your choices will narrow considerably. Of course, you may have flexibility. Maybe your space allows you to mount the projector anywhere you want on the ceiling. In this case, while you might technically be able to choose any projector you want, you should consider mounting the projector as close to the screen as you comfortably can. Light is subject to the Inverse Square Law, meaning brightness drops logarithmically with increased distance, so the closer you can mount it, the fewer lumens you will need. At the other extreme is a case where you have an existing mount installed on the ceiling that you want to reuse. In this case, you will need to find a projector that features the exact throw ratio dictated by the position of the mount relative to the width of the screen.

Screen Size

Projector screens merit a whole buying guide of their own. However, at this point, many of you will be understandably wondering, "If I'm starting from scratch, how should I know what screen size to get?" A quick, and very rough, rule of thumb is to multiply the distance of the "least-favored viewer"—i.e., the person farthest from the screen—by 1/5. So, if your LFV will be sitting 50 feet away, you'll need a screen that is 10 feet high.

But what if you don't know? Or what if the projector is being used on the go? Every effort should be made to find out, since there is no “standard” throw ratio, nor is there a standard screen size. On paper, multimedia projectors with built-in lenses don't appear to vary a ton. They mostly range from somewhere between 1.3:1 to 3:1, whereas a fixed installation projector with interchangeable lenses might have lens options ranging from 0.8:1 up to 15:1. You might have decided, since they're all about the same, to risk it. This might work, but remember that even exceeding only a foot on a 10-foot screen can lead to a critical part of the presentation being cut off.

If you really can't find out, you have two options: spring for a model with more zoom—which will cost more—or err on the side of shorter throw. Not true short throw, mind you—those don't have zoom and they keystone excessively if not carefully positioned. But something closer to the 1.3:1 end of the spectrum. Why? Because more often than not, getting the projector closer to the screen will be less of a problem than getting it farther away.

Finally, keep in mind, throw is based on native aspect ratio. If, for some reason, you are setting the projector to a narrower aspect ratio than native, the projector will effectively have a longer throw.

Where does a projector's light originate?

Projectors mainly use two lamp technologies: LED and metal halide. Most LED projectors top out at around 1000 lumens right now, and mainly fall into the pico category. Almost all of the rest use metal halide—the classic digital projector lamp, lasting between 2,000 and 5,000 hours on. There are also a few eccentric projector models that feature a green laser/LED hybrid system.

How much brightness do I need?

While throw ratio is very important, brightness is the most important specification to get right. And this is where the third piece of information I mentioned—amount of ambient light—fits in. If the image isn’t bright enough to be seen clearly, all other considerations fly out the window. Getting enough light out of a projector is often the biggest challenge, but remember, it is nearly impossible to get a projector that is too bright. If a projector is ever "too bright" you can always just turn the brightness down. But making a projector that is too dim brighter... good luck!

Ambient light competes with the projector's output, causing the image to become washed out.

In the ideal world in which we don't live, projectors would always be used in total darkness. The more light you add, the more you lower contrast and wash out the image. Even getting a brighter projector only solves the problem partially, since ambient light is mixing with the darker parts of the image, making them cloudy. If you have to use a projector in ambient light, you will never get a perfect image, but it is possible to at least get a viewable image.

Projector brightness is measured in ANSI lumens (lumens for short). Calculating how many lumens you need requires knowing the throw distance, image width, how much ambient light is present in the room, and the content that will be shown. The simplest way to figure this out is to use a projection calculator, a software tool that crunches the number for you. Many projector manufacturers provide calculators on their websites. If not, Projector Central is a great resource, and offers projection calculators for nearly every projector model made.

Here are some examples of numbers of lumens you should anticipate needing:

  • A living room where the lights can be turned off completely: 1500 to 2000 lumens
  • A school classroom or boardroom where the lights can be dimmed, if not fully extinguished: 3000 lumens
  • A lecture hall or small church requiring a 10-foot-wide screen, and has a moderate amount of light: 5000 lumens
  • A movie theater: 20,000 lumens or more

How it will look if your projector isn't bright enough
Underlit Passable Optimal

After looking at the calculator, you may have noticed brightness is measured in foot-candles. Without a light meter, how is one supposed to know how many foot-candles of light a room has? Here, a bit of judgment and common sense come into play. Would you consider it "well lit" (50 foot-candles), moderately lit (20 foot-candles), or dimly lit (less than 5 foot-candles)? Or is there bright sunlight blazing in? If the installation is for critical view, then I would recommend getting a light meter, and carefully measuring. But for most practical everyday uses, a rough guesstimate erring on the side of too bright should suffice.

The content should also be factored in. Are you projecting white song lyrics over a solid background? Or are you showing photographs in an art gallery? In the former case, the contrast of the image is so high you can get away with a much weaker projector. In the latter case, you probably want to preserve every tonal nuance you can and, so, will need more lumens.

If you legitimately don't know where the projector will be used, then get the brightest you can afford that you are able to carry around. However, chances are, with a bit of thought you can come up with a reasonable estimate of the setting. For example, if you are a traveling product rep conducting trainings with groups of up to 20 people at various companies, 3000 lumens may be enough as long as you don't encounter windows without blinds. If you do have a room without blinds, or are trying to project outdoors in daylight, be aware: no projector may be bright enough. You're asking the projector to do something it simply wasn't made to do.

Finally, if the projector is being used for any kind of critical viewing, then it is imperative that ambient light be eliminated from the setting. If this isn't possible, then TVs or monitors (perhaps arranged as a "video wall") should be used as an alternative. Ambient light not only degrades the image but also alters it, potentially undoing any careful calibration of the projector or color-correction work on the image itself. Projectors probably aren't ideal for critical viewing to begin with, but especially not when there is light in the room.

If you can't find a single projector that is bright enough, you might consider stacking. Stacking requires a compatible projector or using outboard hardware so the images can be aligned perfectly.

Now that you know the throw ratio and brightness, you can consider secondary factors, such as resolution and contrast ratio. 

What resolution do I need?

Resolution matters, but perhaps less than you might think. Most projectors these days are least XGA (1024 x 768) resolution, a 4:3 aspect ratio format that has been the longtime staple for giving PowerPoint presentations. A few entry-level models are still SVGA (800 x 600), and pocket projectors sometimes have funky, low native resolutions that the manufacturers are coy about admitting. Because of high-definition video, increasingly widescreen formats, starting at WXGA (1280 x 800), are supplanting the legacy 4:3 standards.

Personally, I would not recommend going lower than XGA. At SVGA and lower resolutions, pixelation in the image will be very apparent. Also, many computer programs require at least XGA resolution even to run. You can cheat and set the computer's projector output to XGA, and let the projector scale the image down to its native resolution; however, the image will look blurry and smaller text will be unreadable. If you ever used a scan converter to hook your computer up to standard-definition TV you'll know what I'm talking about. The so-called “screen-door effect” (discussed below) will also be worse in SVGA or lower.

In home theater setups, the screen-size-to-viewer distance ratio is a lot smaller than for other applications—here a higher-res image pays off. Otherwise, XGA is probably fine as a baseline, though going higher never hurts. Ideally, I would recommend starting at WXGA and going up from there. Even if you are PowerPoint user, bumping up to 16:10 won't really hurt, plus, you'll be ready if you want to screen HD video down the road. For special applications, such as exhibiting photos, you will want higher resolution: at least 1600 x 1200 (UXGA) for 4:3 or 1920 x 1200 for 16:10 (WUXGA), if not better. In the case of home theater, it's really a question of whether to invest in 4K or not, since nearly all home theater projectors are at least Full HD (1920 x 1080) anyway. Certainly 4K in a projector makes more sense than 4K in a TV, since you can achieve a larger image size. 

If you really want to be scientific about resolution, a quick Internet search will turn up a number of resolution calculators where you can plug in a screen size and viewing distance and the calculator will spit back a resolution. These are great, but, as with brightness, the content really needs to be factored in, and a calculator can't do that. A highly compressed YouTube video may look like hot garbage no matter what you try to show it on. On the other hand, if you are putting together a screening room for a production company, 4K may barely cut it. 

Should I care about contrast ratio?

Contrast ratio is probably the most meaningless spec you'll find. Like HDTVs, projectors rely on so-called “dynamic contrast” to boost their on-paper performance. Also, the screen surface plays an import role in contrast. Finally, any ambient light will bring contrast ratio down into the double digits. Unless you have optimal viewing conditions (i.e., virtually no light and a good screen), a 500:1 contrast ratio and a 100,000:1 contrast ratio on paper probably won't render a visible difference.

What are keystone corrections and lens shift?

Most projectors will have at least vertical, if not horizontal keystone correction; some even offer lens shift. Of course, we are all familiar with the trapezoidal “keystone effect”—the image appears wider at the top when the projector is too low, or wider on one side when the projector is horizontally off center. Keystone correction remedies this, up to a certain specified percentage. The problem with keystone correction is that it is achieved digitally, like digital zoom on a camcorder. The more you apply, the more the image will be degraded. As long as you mount or place the projector so that the lens is not below the bottom of the screen or above the top of the screen (assuming a right angle relative to the screen) you should be okay. If you start getting outside of a normal mounting situation, or are staking or edge blending, you will seriously want to consider picking a projector with lens shift. Lens shift serves the same purpose, and then some, and achieves it optically with no loss in image quality. To get lens shift you are probably looking at a high-end home theater or fixed installation projector. 

Original Image Vertical Keystone Horizontal Keystone

DLP versus LCD: Which is better?

DLP is for better image quality, LCD lasts longer. Next topic.

Just kidding!

There are three imaging systems used in most projectors today: DLP, LCD, and one you might not have heard of: LCoS. Between the DLP and LCD it is really a toss-up these days. LCD has a little less rainbow effect on average; DLP a little less screen-door effect. Apart from that, LCD has a slight reliability edge in that there are no moving parts in the imaging system, whereas single-chip DLP uses a spinning color wheel and micro mirrors. LCD panels can still fail, but more often it is a case of dead pixels rather than a catastrophic failure as when a DLP color wheel stops working. If you are using the projector in a remote setting where it can't readily be replaced or served, then go LCD. Otherwise LCD vs DLP doesn't need to be a deciding factor.

Sample of Screen-Door Effect

In some ways, the underdog, LCoS, offers the best of both worlds. Some of you may vaguely recall HD projection TVs that had LCoS. LCoS (Liquid Crystal on Silicone) is a reflective technology like DLP, but in this case, the light is reflected from a silicone-backed LCD panel rather than micro mirrors. This system currently claims to produce the least screen-door effect and, because it is LCD, is free from the rainbow effect and other color-wheel-related artifacts. It is used almost exclusively in high-end multimedia projectors targeting critical viewing applications. On Sony home theater projectors, LCoS is called SXRD (Silicon X-tal Reflective Display).

What connectvity do I need?

In terms of video inputs, all but very high-end professional systems have more or less the same options: VGA, composite, component (usually on the VGA connector), HDMI, and occasionally S-Video. VGA has been on projectors forever, and because it is so widely used in many existing A/V systems, will remain an option for some time—we just can't seem to kill it. Otherwise, HDMI is the main connector to look for, now and in the near future. Most computers can be adapted to HDMI with inexpensive passive adapters if they don't already have a built-in HDMI output. So look for HDMI, first and foremost. In some cases, a projector will have a DisplayPort or DVI input instead of HDMI. As long as you're not trying to pass 4K, these inputs can be adapted to accept an HDMI signal, again, using a passive adapter or cable. On professional projectors, you will also sometimes find SDI (serial digital interface), a digital interface mainly used in the broadcast world—at this level, you can often install expansion boards to customize the projector's connectivity, tailoring it to your specific needs.

One tip for installations: do not run HDMI more than 25 feet. There are HDMI cables that are longer, but the longer you go, the more the cable acts as an antenna, picking up RF signals. For whatever reason, 25 feet seems to be where reliability dives off the cliff. If you need to send HDMI farther, you can use baluns, special converter boxes that modify the signal so it can travel over a balanced (i.e., interference-resistant) type of cable, most often Ethernet.

In addition to video, many multimedia and home theater projectors have some form of wired control port, usually RS-232. This allows integration with automation systems or control using custom-developed software. Increasingly, Ethernet is becoming a standard feature, and will typically allow you to operate the projector across a network, or even the Internet, using any web browser. Some also have Wi-Fi capability.

Multimedia projectors often have one or more USB ports, though figuring out what the USB port does isn't always easy.

Possible USB functions include:

  • A video interface—as an alternative to using VGA or HDMI
  • Plugging in a presentation mouse
  • A port for a USB flash drive for giving "computer-less" presentations
  • Connector for an optional Wi-Fi dongle
  • Remote controlling the projector from a computer.

Computer-less presentation is probably the most-demanded feature of a USB port, and it is becoming increasingly common. However, in most cases this feature is for still-image formats, such as JPG only. The projector will not act as a media player and play video files. Some projectors also include software for converting PowerPoint presentations, but this can be buggy; I would recommend exporting your slide shows directly from PowerPoint to a supported still-image format such as JPG instead. You will lose animation effects, but at least it is reliable. Pico and home theater projectors, on the other hand, often have built-in media players so you can play back video from a USB device or even a memory card.

Wireless video is one of the most asked-for inputs. Some projectors have it, usually in the form of an optional USB dongle. But, because the video generally has to be compressed and, due to the presence of so many competing wireless devices—especially wireless routers—the wireless interface on projectors is only recommended for PowerPoint, photos, or showing relatively static computer graphics, not for full-frame-rate video. In addition, the range of projector wireless dongles is usually limited to about a 30-foot line of sight. If you really need to send video wirelessly, there are third-party options that can do it, and some are even uncompressed. But even with dedicated solutions, there are so many unpredictable environmental variables that the technology is not going to be mission-critical reliable. 

Can I rely on a projector's built-in speakers?

Speccing a projector based on its speakers is a bit like speccing a car on how well it works as a boat. Projector speakers are terrible, even worse than TV speakers. Many will de-embed audio from the HDMI stream, so you might be tempted to just plug your speakers directly into the projector. Unfortunately, they often don't even extract audio very well. I would recommend you use separate speakers if your application includes sound, and that you plug the computer, DVD player, or other video source directly into the speakers or sound system, bypassing the projector itself. Most devices have separate audio outputs in addition to the video output.

If you have to rely on the built-in speaker, then be sure to pick a projector that puts out at least 10 watts. 

Is 3D still "a thing"?

Consumer electronics manufacturers openly admit they've given up on 3D. You might still want 3D. If so, you'll probably need to look for a home theater projector. Many multimedia projectors purport to be "3D-ready;" in most cases, they only work with computers that have compatible graphics cards (DLP-Link is one proprietary technology that is widely used). Home theater projectors are more likely to feature HDMI 3D support so you can use them with Blu-ray players. When speccing for 3D, keep in mind that you are effectively cutting the brightness in half. As an alternative to buying a 3D-ready projector, you can also use a combination of two-projector stacking and polarizing filters. A special processor is required to demux the left- and right-eye streams from the HDMI signal.

Conclusion: Where does image quality come from?

Chances are, you want the best picture quality for your money, and it probably seems like we've been avoiding the question, speaking instead about boring, if important, practicalities like throw ratio and lumens. To this complaint, there are two arguments:

  1. If the projector you choose isn't bright enough, the image quality will suffer, regardless. And if it throws an image the wrong size, the viewing experience will suffer.
  2. Image quality is difficult to measure to the extent it can be measured objectively at all. And a lot of "image quality" is just plain subjective.

Regarding argument 1, I'm sure you'll agree I've said enough already. Addressing number 2:

If you know what brightness and throw ratio you need, I would suggest to you that two projectors with comparable specs at a similar price will perform almost exactly the same. Flipping a coin may not sound like the most sane way to make a purchasing decision, but once you've determined what features are mandatory, and settled on a price, you've already done everything you can to make a smart choice, Whether the preceding steps have narrowed your options down to one model or ten, rest assured, whatever you pick from those that remain will be the best choice for you.

The Takeaway

  • Is a projector the right choice? If you need to achieve a larger screen size and/or if portability is key, then yes.
  • When not to use a projector: Projectors are for screening. They should not be used for color correction work or critical evaluation. Additionally, they work best in low light. If you have bright, uncontrollable ambient light, especially sunlight, then consider an alternative.
  • Once you know the screen size, determine the throw ratio based on the screen width and the distance between the projector and the screen.
  • If the screen size isn't known in advance, opt for a projector with more zoom or one that has a shorter throw. In most cases, getting closer is easier than getting farther back.
  • Taking into account the screen size, throw distance, and the amount of ambient light in the room, use a projection calculator to determine the necessary minimum brightness in lumens.
  • If you cannot calculate the brightness you need, consider the brightest projector you can get, within reason.
  • Factoring in the content you will be showing and the distance of your average audience member, determine the minimum resolution you need. WXGA is usually safe for multimedia, though going up to 1080p and beyond certainly isn't going to hurt (except maybe your pocket book). For home theater, you will always want 1080p; and may even want to consider 4K.
  • Consider any secondary features you may need, such as the ability to show a presentation from a USB flash drive.
  • Don't sweat it if, after the above process of elimination, your search turns up too many choices—chances are any will work fine for you.


Brightness (lumens)
Projector brightness is measured in ANSI lumens (lumens, for short). Since the lumens rating is often measured by taking a reflected reading from a screen rather than directly from the light emanating from the lens, there is a fair amount of room for number fudging. This is because different screen surfaces have different reflectivity characteristics, and you can probably guess which surfaces projector makers prefer when rating their own products. On top of that, the image center is brighter than the edges by some factor, so manufacturers will measure from the center (in some cases they are honest enough to admit they are taking a center reading, but this is typically on professional models that the companies know will get more carefully scrutinized by the end user).

Multimedia projectors start around 2500 lumens, going up to around 4500 lumens or so, though the line gets blurry between multimedia and fixed installation. So you may see what is advertised as a multimedia projector having up to 6500 lumens. Home theater projectors used to hover around the 2000-lumen mark, but in recent years more and more high-brightness models haves started to emerge. As of this writing, pico (pocket) projectors, because they rely on LED lamps, are rated at 1000 lumens or less; some as low as 10 lumens, or about the brightness of a Maglite. At the other end of the spectrum, if you want to build a typical movie theater, you're looking at 20,000 lumens or more.

DLP stands for Digital Light Processing. There are two types: single chip and three chip. Single-chip DLP is the most common, and uses a combination of a color wheel and micro-mirrors to generate an image. Its historic advantage over LCD is that it can produce better color and contrast since the wheel can—in theory—be dyed to reproduce any color value or tonal value it wants. In addition, there is less space between pixels, thanks to advances in micro-mirror design, so you are less likely to perceive the so-called "screen-door effect." The drawback to DLP compared to LCD is an artifact known as "rainbow effect." However, recent DLP projectors spin the color wheel so fast, the rainbow effect is all but impossible to perceive.  

Three-chip DLP is rare, and forgoes the color-wheel in favor of three arrays of micro-mirrors, one for each primary color. In some ways, three-chip DLP is the best of both worlds: eliminating the rainbow effect while keeping the pixel spacing reasonable. However, the technology is generally regarded as cost prohibitive and not often used.

Edge Blending
Edge blending allows the images from two or more projectors to be seamlessly merged to produce a single, larger image. Edge blending is the projection equivalent of a video wall, and can be useful for creative applications, allowing the creating of non-standard aspect ratios. Edge blending may be a built-in feature, or a third-party video processor may be used. In either case, the projectors must be of the same model and they must be carefully calibrated to ensure the images match.

Hybrid (LED/Laser) Projector Lamp
To produce higher brightness than is currently possible using an LED lamp exclusively, while retaining an acceptable CRI (Color Rendering Index), some projectors use "hybrid" lamps that combine an LED with an array of green lasers, combined using a reversed beamspiltter. The benefit of this technology is a light source that does not burn out and offers lower energy consumption compared to traditional metal-halide lamps of the same brightness. The drawback is that the CRI obtained remains lower than what metal halide lamps can produce. Therefore, this technology is deployed in "presentation"-oriented projectors—that is, for giving PowerPoint presentations and similar applications. A projector optimized for video playback, showing photos, or anything else where good color reproduction is required will use one or more metal-halide lamps.

Keystone Correction
Keystone correction is a digital process that counteracts the keystone effect to a specified percentage. Most projectors have vertical keystone correction only, some have horizontal and vertical. The "keystone effect" (or "keystoning") causes the projected image to appear wider at the top when the projector is too low, or wider on one side when the projector is horizontally off-center. Vertical keystone correction fixes keystoning when the projector is too low or too high, but requires horizontal centering. Horizontal correction compensates if the projector is horizontally off-center. Some projectors require manual adjustment, and some calculate the required correction automatically.

The drawback to keystone correction is that because it is a digital effect, the more correction applied, the more resolution will be reduced, a bit like digital zoom on a video camera. To avoid quality loss, lens shift should be used.

LED Projector Lamp
LED (Light Emitting Diode) is the most energy-efficient means of projector illumination. Additionally, LED lamps do not burn out in the ordinary sense. As with any circuit, they can fail, but they have a life expectancy on the order of 20,000 hours, compared to less than 5,000 for a typical metal-halide lamp. Currently, LEDs face two primary limitations to wider adoption in projectors: lower brightness and a lower CRI (Color Rendering Index) compared to the metal-halide counterparts. As of this writing, many LED-only projectors emit less than 1000 lumens and belong almost exclusively to the pico (pocket projector) category.

There is a very small minority of multimedia projectors that use a hybrid technology that combines LED with a green laser.

Three-LCD (often styled "3LCD") is the most common imaging system used in multimedia projectors. In its most common implementation, three-LCD uses a beamsplitter (prism) to break light into its RGB primaries, sending each color through a dedicated monochrome liquid crystal panel. Compared to DLP, LCDs do not tend to produce perceptible motion artifacts since they render the image line-by-line like a TV or computer monitor, and there are no moving parts in the imaging system. The drawbacks are lower contrast ratio than DLP, and more space between pixels, making the "screen-door effect" more apparent at a given resolution.

LCoS (Liquid Crystal on Silicone) is also called SXRD (Silicon X-tal Reflective Display) on Sony products. It is a reflective technology like three-chip DLP, but in this case, the light is reflected from three silicone-backed LCD panels rather than micro-mirror arrays. This system currently claims to produce the least screen-door effect and, because it is LCD, is free from the "rainbow effect" and other color-wheel-related artifacts associated with single-chip DLP. It is used in multimedia projectors targeting critical viewing applications and some high-end home theater projectors.

Low Voltage Control (LVC)
LVC (Low Voltage Control) is an output found on many projectors that allows the projector to trigger another component of the A/V or home theater installation. For example, connecting a projector to a motorized screen that has LVC support allows the projector to automatically trigger the screen to lower when the projector is turned on and raise when it is turned off. The LVC output may be connected directly to the screen, or it may be connected to an automation system which, in turn, controls the screen and possibly performs other actions, such as dimming the house lights.

Lens Shift
Projectors with lens shift have a movable lens-projector interface that allows the angle of the lens to be adjusted slightly ("shifted") with respect to the image plane. Like keystone correction, lens shift can be used to correct for keystoning, but unlike the former does not result in resolution loss. In addition, it can be used to reposition the image slightly to aid in the installation of the projector or to help align two or more images when using stacking or edge blending. Lens shift has to be adjusted manually on some projectors, and is motorized—operable by remote—on some models. Large-venue projectors with interchangeable lenses typically have motorized shift.

Metal-Halide Projector Lamp
In spite of advances in LED technology, metal-halide lamps remain the most common because they are bright and have high CRI (Color Rendering Index). The drawbacks: they burn out after several thousand hours (2,000 to 5,000 hours), force projectors to use noisy cooling systems, and are notoriously expensive. On typical multimedia and home theater projectors, only a single lamp is used, and it will be encased in a housing. Typically, the entire housing assembly will be replaced, not just the lamp itself. The old lamp should be allowed to cool fully before attempting to remove it, and care should be taken not to touch the lens. Oils on your fingers can degrade the lens coating and potentially cause the lamp to explode when it is turned on. There is minimal risk of physical harm since the lamp will be sealed inside the projector, however it will mean buying a new lamp.

Dual Lamp
Some projectors use two (or more) lamps as a cost-effective way of increasing the total brightness. Dual-lamp design also provides a degree of redundancy—assuming only a single lamp fails, you could continue to use the projector, albeit at half the original output. On some models it also means you could switch off one lamp to conserve lamp life and energy in situations where the full output is superfluous. This may not be ideal from the perspective of maintenance, however, since it means the lamps will have to be replaced at different times, and the sort of projectors that use dual (or multi-lamp) tend to be installed in places where they are not readily accessible.

Native Resolution
Native resolution is the resolution, measure in pixel dimensions, of a projector's imaging system, and should not be conflated with its maximum supported resolution, which is often higher. Resolutions can either be SD or HD "video" formats, such as: 480i (NTSC), 576i (PAL), 720p, 1080i, UltraHD 4K (3840 x 2160), or DCI 4K (4096 x 2160), or computer VESA (Video Electronics Standards Association) formats, such as:VGA (640 x 480), SVGA (800 x 600), XGA (1024 x 768), WXGA (1280 x 800), UXGA (1600 x 1200), or WUXGA (1920 x 1200).

Ideally, the connected device should be set to match the projector's native resolution. Otherwise the projector will scale the image, resulting in image degradation.

Rainbow Effect
Rainbow effect is an artifact observed on many single-chip DLP-based projectors and is principally caused by the color wheel putting out different colors at different times. The effect is perceived as a rainbow trail in the corner of your peripheral vision as you move your eyes across image. As DLP technology has matured, faster-spinning wheels have significantly reduced this effect to the point people hardly notice it today.

Screen-Door Effect
The screen-door effect is an artifact produced to varying degrees by all imaging systems digital projector's use: DLP, 3LCD, and LCoS. It can be described as a grid pattern, and is caused by the physical space between the individual pixels. At a given resolution, LCD projectors tend to exhibit the most screen door effect and LCoS projectors the least. Apart from choice of imaging system, higher-resolution projectors typically produce less screen-door effect than lower-resolution models at a given image size.

Stacking doesn't mean physically stacking projectors on top of each other (though stackable projectors usually support this arrangement). Rather, it means identical images from two or several projectors are projected over the same area of the screen, hence, the images are what is "stacked." Stacking becomes a way of increasing brightness beyond what a single projector in the system is capable of, and may be more cost effective that buying a single projector of the same brightness. Projectors must be the same model, and calibration is required to ensure the stacked images match. Stacking is built in on many fixed-installation projectors that have lens shift. Additionally, third-party processors are available that allow images from projectors that do not have built-in stacking to be merged.

Throw Ratio
Throw ratio describes the relationship between the width of the screen and the distance between the projector and screen, with the first number representing the throw distance and the second the screen width. It is styled "throw distance:screen width", e.g.: "1.3:1". So, for example, a lens with a 1:1 throw ratio will produce a 4-foot-wide image at 4 feet from the screen. A “short throw” (or wide angle) lens with a 0.5:1 throw ratio will produce a 4-foot-wide image at 2 feet from the screen. And, finally, a long throw (or telephoto) lens with a 3:1 throw ratio will produce a 4-foot-wide image at 12 feet from the screen. Projectors with zoom lenses will specify throw ratio as a range, e.g., "1.3:1 to 1.7:1". Unless otherwise noted, throw ratio is based on the native aspect ratio of the projector.

Multimedia and home theater projectors generally have throw ratios of 0.3:1 or more at their widest setting and of 3:1 or less at their most telephoto. Special short-throw projectors will have a ratio of 0.5:1 or less. Interchangeable-lens projectors will offer an assortment of lenses, covering ratios from 0.8:1 to 10:1 or more. In some cases, add-on lenses can be purchased to increase or decrease the throw ratio of the stock lens. As with converter lenses for video cameras, distortion and other forms of image-quality reduction may result.  

Contrast Ratio
Contrast ratio compares the darkest value the projector can produce to the brightest, can range anywhere from 500:1 to 100,000:1, and  tends to be higher on DLP-based projectors. It is important to note, in many cases, the manufacturer-specified contrast ratio is actually dynamic contrast. Dynamic contrast varies the lamp brightness between images (or scenes), basing the ratio on the brightest possible white the projector can make when the brightness is maxed out, versus the darkest possible black when the lamp is at its darkest setting (or completely off for some technologies). This means the advertised contrast ratio will only be perceived if a dark image immediately follows a bright image or vice-versa.

Apart from dynamic contrast, determining projector contrast ratio is problematic because the type of screen fabric (other projection surface) and the presence of ambient light significantly affect contrast ratio. In the case of ambient light, the more ambient light there is the worse the effective contrast ratio will be. And any amount of ambient light beyond trivial will bring the ratio down significantly, making comparisons based on contrast ratio meaningless anytime ambient light will be encountered.

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The distance I have is 3 meters and was thinking about mini projector + bluetooth speakers to watch Netflix on my living room. We care about quality image like HD and a great sound. Love wireless/wifi devices. Any suggestion?

Hi Rossane - 

Here is one of the brighter  HD pico projectors:

Internet connectivity, detailed images, and portability are combined in the LG PF1500W 1400-Lumen Full HD Portable Smart LED Projector. This LED projector supports screens up to 120" and features a Full HD 1920 x 1080 native resolution. It also boasts a 1400-lumen maximum light output and a 150,000:1 dynamic contrast ratio. The LED light source built into the PF1500W has an estimated lifespan of up to 30,000 hours.

The PF1500W can access Internet streaming content such as YouTube, Netflix, and social media services. This model also supports wireless content sharing with integrated WiDi, Miracast, and DLNA connectivity. Wired content sharing and device mirroring is also available via its two HDMI ports. This projector is also equipped with two USB inputs for connecting compatible devices. It is controllable via the included remote control, or through your compatible smartphone via the TV Plus app.


Thank you for writing this. I was tasked with buying a projector and I have NO idea what I am doing. This has helped a lot, but I am still so confused. We will be using the projector mainly for powerpoint slides (at various location, some brighter than others), so I know I will need a high lumen count, just incase we are in a school gym with little dimming power. The main screen we will be using is 6ft by 6ft, though we may use a bigger or smaller screen in any situation. Budget is hopefully under $800. Any words of advise is welcomed.

-Disheartened shopper

Hi Katie- 

The Epson PowerLite 1284 3200-Lumen WUXGA 3LCD Multimedia Projector is suitable for use in environments such as schools, conference rooms, and more. It delivers 3200 lumens of brightness with a 15,000:1 contrast ratio. The PowerLite 1284 has a WUXGA 1920 x 1200 native resolution for displaying detailed Full HD images. This projector is powered by a 3-chip, 3LCD system with a wide color gamut, and the lamp features a long life of up to 10,000 hours in Eco mode. You can use the 1284 to project up to a 300" image, and it features a 1.38 to 1.68:1 throw ratio.


Thank you for a well written and informative article, but the more I read, the more I realize that I am in over my head.

I have been very happy with a Sharp DT300 projector in my home theatre for many years but was hoping to upgrade to hi def, perhaps doing away with replacing expensive metal halide bulbs. It’s also got no HDMI inputs.

The DT300 has a 1-1.2 X zoom & a 210W/168W bulb. I couldn’t figure out how many lumens that is but it does the job just fine. Looks like 720P/1080I if I read the manual right. The screen is 80” wide (91” diagonal), the unmovable fixed position for the throw distance is 110”, the lens is 15” higher than the top of the screen and the room is mostly but not totally dark.

Can you be kind enough to suggest a projector or 2?

Hi Marc - 

It sounds like you have a dedicated space for a home theater projector.  If the ambient light in the room can be controlled then this may be the ideal projctor for you:

Enjoy 1080p images in vibrant color with the black Sony VPL-HW45ES Full HD Home Theater Projector. Its three SXRD chips are designed to enhance color accuracy, while its 1800 lumens of brightness will ensure that your images are clear even with some ambient light. This projector has 1.6x zoom, so you can place it near the back of the room without losing focus.

The VPL-HW45ES has two HDMI inputs for connecting your digital HD devices such as your HD cable/satellite box or Blu-ray player. It is 3D compatible and will connect to many RF-based 3D glasses. It includes an IR remote control.

Enhanced Full HD Pictures with Reality Creation

Cinema-quality SXRD panel technology is teamed with Sony's Reality Creation processing that refines subtle details, colors, and textures. You'll see the difference with crisp, sharp, Full HD pictures that take you closer to the original 1080p source.

1800 Lumens of Brightness for Vibrant Images

With 1800 lumens of brightness, Full HD images stand out with clear, bright highlights, even in moderately lit rooms.

Select from Nine Picture Calibration Modes

Quickly calibrate the picture to what you're watching or playing. Select from nine picture calibration modes, including two cinema film modes, cinema digital, reference, TV, photo, game, bright cinema, and bright TV. An advanced HSV manual color tuning tool gives you even more control.

Smooth, Fluid On-Screen Action with Motionflow

Coupled with the panel's fast response rate, Motionflow technology means you'll see every detail with minimal blur, no matter how fast the action.

Long-Lasting Lamp

The 6000-hour rated lamp operating life means simpler maintenance with fewer lamp swaps and reduced running costs.

Flexible Home Installation with Wide Zoom and Lens Shift

The manual zoom lens with a 1.6x zoom ratio and wide lens shift range gives greater installation flexibility in any room size, even with high ceilings.

Front-Facing Fan

With the fan exhaust positioned at the front of the projector, you don't need to worry about wall clearance and room for air intake/exhaust when installing. This helps maximize throw distance for the biggest possible projected images.

Home Automation with IP Control

The VPL-HW45ES is compatible with a wide range of home automation systems via RS-232C and IR-in interfaces.

Industry-Standard RF 3D Compatible

The projector's built-in RF transmitter synchronizes with any RF 3D glasses for enhanced coverage and stability, so there's no need for an external transmitter.

USB Updates

You can keep up-to-date with the latest features and firmware updates via the projector's USB port.

I'm looking for a projector for an out side theater. Need to project the image 50' away. What would be the best projector for that?

Hi Pat - 

You do not mention the size of your screen. which is an extremely critical piece of information.  But to give you an idea of what you maybe dealing with.  Let's say you are using a screen with a 16:9 aspect ratio that offers a screen diagonal of 119". Hhere is an excellent projector and lens that offers you the correct geometry:

The HD6K-M 1080 HD 3DLP Projector from Christie features embedded warping, blending, and color matching, along with built-in portrait capabilities. This 3-chip DLP projector is 2D and 3D capable and can be upgraded from its existing 2D display technology to include 3D capabilities.

True HD native resolution (1920 x 1080)

6,600 Center lumens

Variable contrast ratio of 2500-10,000:1 using dynamic iris (Full on, Full off) and 650:1 ANSI

Dual mercury lamps

Two high definition input channels that allow 4:4:4 HD signals

Comprehensive Color Adjustment (CCA)

Embedded Christie Twist image warping and edge-blending

Dust-sealed engine, filter-free design

Motorized yellow notch filter

Motorized horizontal and veritcal lens offset

Scheimpflug (tilt) adjustment

Built-in light shutter

Tool-free lens insertion system

Intelligent Lens System (ILS) for zoom, focus, horizontal, and vertical offset

Multi-windowing and screen processing (up to a 3x3 array)

3D upgradable

Built-in portrait display capabilities


99 Channel memories

Menus in five languages

The HD Projection ILS Zoom Lens from Christie is a lens incorporating the Intelligent Lens System (ILS). The ILS automatically recognizes and calibrates a lens when it is installed. Stepper-motor-based encoding ensures that motor drift does not occur, thus providing accurate and repeatable recall of all lens offset, zoom, and focus positions. When used with Christie M Series HD/WU products, this ILS zoom lens has a 4.1-6.9:1 throw ratio. If used with any Christie M Series SXGA+ products, the ILS zoom lens will provide a 4.5-7.3:1 throw ratio.

Do not have a set screen size yet. What I have is a gazebo on one end of my pool and a wall on the other side that is 50' away. I can go bigger than 119". Is there a projector that can project that far that is cheaper? That is extremely more than what I'm looking to spend.Thanks!

Hi Pat - 

50' is a long distance and is generally only used in large venue profesional set-ups like auditoriums, lecture centers and theaters. If you can go for a larger screen with a 232" (or so) diagonal measurement (197" W x 123" H), then the cost will come down dramatically:

The black F-22 WUXGA Multimedia Projector with Long Throw Zoom Lens and High Brightness Color Wheel from Barco is a professional installation projector adaptable to a range of use cases, such as flight simulators and theme park rides, museums, visitor attractions, and more. The projector features a brightness of up to 3000 lumens (depending on settings), has a native WUXGA (1920 x 1200) resolution and native 16:10 aspect ratio format. In addition to its native aspect ratio and resolution, through internal scaling, the F22 can accommodate a wide range of formats, from 480p SD all the way up to WUXGA (1920 x 1200).

The F22 features connectivity to accommodate a variety of sources. There are HDMI and DVI inputs for HDTV and digital computer sources. There is a VGA port for analog computer sources or for integration with existing A/V installations. Plus, there are composite, component, and S-video inputs to cover most analog video sources, whether SD or HD.

Do not have a set screen size yet. What I have is a gazebo on one end of my pool and a wall on the other side that is 50' away. I can go bigger than 119". Is there a projector that can project that far that is cheaper? That is extremely more than what I'm looking to spend.Thanks!

Hi Pat - 

50' is a long distance and is generally only used in large venue profesional set-ups like auditoriums, lecture centers and theaters. If you can go for a larger screen with a 232" (or so) diagonal measurement (197" W x 123" H), then the cost will come down dramatically:

The black F-22 WUXGA Multimedia Projector with Long Throw Zoom Lens and High Brightness Color Wheel from Barco is a professional installation projector adaptable to a range of use cases, such as flight simulators and theme park rides, museums, visitor attractions, and more. The projector features a brightness of up to 3000 lumens (depending on settings), has a native WUXGA (1920 x 1200) resolution and native 16:10 aspect ratio format. In addition to its native aspect ratio and resolution, through internal scaling, the F22 can accommodate a wide range of formats, from 480p SD all the way up to WUXGA (1920 x 1200).

The F22 features connectivity to accommodate a variety of sources. There are HDMI and DVI inputs for HDTV and digital computer sources. There is a VGA port for analog computer sources or for integration with existing A/V installations. Plus, there are composite, component, and S-video inputs to cover most analog video sources, whether SD or HD.

Many thanks for your great advice

This was all interesting but really didn't help much. I want a projector for outdoor movie night to be used on a screen between 100" and 120" diagonal. I would say the projector can be set fairly close but the audience will be 10' to 20' away. I also need either good internal speaker probably minimum of 10 watts or speaker outputs for external speaker(s). Also probably need some keystone correction and would prefer some zoom capability as opposed to having to physically move the projector, although moving the projector a little is not unacceptable.I would like to stay under $200. Oh, almost forgot, would like to have hdmi input for hooking up a Roku which will be getting wi-fi signal or at least composite input.

So based on the criteria I have given what can you recommend?

Hi George - 

I'm sorry that you did not find this article helpful.  It is intended to be a brief iintroduction to complex product choice. 

This HD projector will deliver a bright, crisp image with a 120" diagonal from a throw distance of 10 to 13 feet:

Enjoy bright images in nearly any environment with the Viewsonic LightStream PJD7831HDL 3200-Lumen Full HD DLP Projector. Its 3200 lumens of brightness can overcome ambient light in many situations, while its 22,000:1 dynamic contrast ratio will help dark areas of the images remain dark. The Full HD 1920 x 1080 resolution is suitable for displaying any HD source and many file and document types. The projector features a 1.15 to 1.5:1 throw ratio which will allow you to place it near the back of the room in most situations.

The PJD7831HDL has two HDMI inputs for connecting digital high definition sources, such as Blu-ray players and HD cable/satellite boxes. One of the two is MHL-compatible to support wireless dongles. Its VGA output will allow you to daisy chain multiple projectors or displays in order to display the same source. And the two analog audio inputs, one analog audio output, and onboard 10-Watt speaker will ensure that audio accompanies your video. The projector is controllable via RS-232 or the included IR remote.

I am looking to project 8' on a 50" screen. What should I look for? Thanks

Hi James -

You have not specified your particular application, resolution, or budget range.  You might consider this powerful HD projector:

Enjoy bright, clear images with the Optoma EH416 4200-Lumen Full HD DLP Projector. Its 4200 lumens of brightness will overcome ambient light in many cases while its 20,000:1 contrast ratio and Full HD (1920 x 1080) native resolution will help ensure that detail is clear. It has a 1.4 to 2.24:1 throw ratio, which will allow you to place the projector far from the screen without losing focus.

The EH416 has VGA, composite, and two HDMI inputs to support a variety of devices. Its VGA output will let you daisy chain the image to another projector or display, while the analog audio input and output will do the same for your audio. The projector will connect wirelessly with an optional WHD200 system. The EH416 has a built-in 10-Watt speaker to eliminate the need for a separate speaker system. It is controllable via Ethernet and RS-232 using AMX or Crestron RoomView software. The projector includes an IR remote control which features a built-in laser pointer.

Hello, Mark!

Thank you so much for the article! I wish i'd find and read it sooner too. I am shopping for a projector do take to my photography client's homes. To do an in-person design and sales conlultation for them. I am going to be dealing with a variety of rooms, distances and lighting scenarios. Projecting the photographs from their photo sessions onto their walls as possible wall art collages and standalone pieces. Having a built-in speakers of decent quality to project slideshows will be helpful (one less piece of equipment i have to bring).

So far I have narrowed it down to:

Epson 955WH 3200 Lumen WXGA and Epson PowerLite 99WH 3000 Lumen ones.

Would you think they would be the best ones to perform in variety of spaces in that price range? 

I would also love a reccomendation on a mounting base like a tripod for projector to install them ono. 

Thank you so much!!


Hi Polina - 

These two projectors are both excellent choices and very similar to each other i would recommend going with the Epson 955WH as it is a bit brighter and offes the wider throw ratio making it easier to position for optimal image sizing depending upon your venue.  

The Gitzo G065 Monitor Platform is a 13" x 15.7" (33 x 40 cm) platform which can be fitted to any Gitzo (or other brand) tripod via a 3/8"-16 thread on the bottom. It safely supports supplementary equipment, such as monitors, mixers, tape recorders and projectors.

Thank you!!!!

Hi Mark, this was a great article to understand the need of specific projectors.

We are looking forward to but a projector. I work for an organization where we have an auditorium which has 200 seat capacity with 15 meters in length. and 4 meters backdrop. This auditorium is not fully dark where the windows on top are covered with plain glass and hence the room had natural brighness. We use this auditorium for programs and other purposes as well. Also, we use the projector in different places like training center and auditorium and meeting room. So we can not wallmount the projector in one place. We need to use the projector for powerpoint presentations, programs, showing movies to the inmates, etc. 

We had one projector Viewsonic PJD 5126. However, theere was some issue with the lens and the service company is asking for a price which is near the projector cost itself. So, we are planning to get a new projector.

So, with the above mentioned situation, can you please guide us which projector would work well for our use?

Thanks and regards,


Hi David - 

Not sure what your budget range might be, but for rprobably about the same price as you paid for the VIewsonic PJD5126 (or less), you can now jump up in resolution, brightness, overall color performance, and lamp-life:

Bring your classroom presentations to life with the BenQ MX525A 3300-Lumen XGA Projector. It supports 3D playback with optional 3D glasses for a more immersive experience. Its 3300 lumens of brightness will effectively combat most ambient light, and its 13,000:1 contrast ratio combined with its 1024 x 768 native resolution will deliver clear images at most seating distances. Plus, its 1.96 to 2.15:1 throw ratio will enable you to place the projector near the back of the room, preventing passersby from easily walking into it.

Mark, thanks for the great article,

Recently my JVC DLA X70R projector failed and I'm looking for a replacement. It's connected to a Denon X2300W amp via (internal ceiling) HDMI cable so no internal speakers are necessary. There is some ambient day time light so was considering something with higher lumens than the 1800 from the X70R. I have a ceiling mount with a throw ratio of 1.2-1. It has 3D capability but I never use it so don't need that. What is your suggestion for something equivalent of preferably better. The X70R wasn't cheap but would go there again if something better and less costly wasn't available.

Thanks again.


I have reviewed your QA section but wanted to ask specific question.  I am looking for a short throw projector for a live stage performance.  I need a short throw due to limitations on stage size.  I need the projector to be portable and be able to display about 100" from no more than 3-5 feet away.  My budget range is around $500.  I was looking at BenQ MW632ST on your website but wanted to get a recommendation.

Thank you

Hi Vlad - 

The BenQ MW632ST will give you a 100" diagonal image (16:10 aspect ratio) a from a 5' to 6' throw distance. This is probably the best match near your budget range.


I need a tip to buy a projector to to put on store, with very daylight, i want to project it on a with wall on store, what is the best option ?

Thanks in advance,

V Miranda

Hi - 

Select a wall that does not receive direct daylight or too much glare from overhead lighting fixtures.  Select a high lumens output that offers good sharpness and detail:

Optimized for boardrooms, classrooms, and other presentation applications, the MW727 WXGA DLP Multimedia Projector from BenQ features a brightness of 4200 lumens and a native resolution of 1280 x 800 (WXGA). To help provide flexibility in terms of placement relative to the screen, it features a 1.3x optical zoom with a 1.2 to 1.57:1 throw ratio. In addition to its native resolution, it can be connected to a range of devices from 480i up to WUXGA (1920 x 1200) thanks to internal scaling.


I use video projectors with rear projection film on shop windows exposed to the sun for advertising. High lumens projectors (higher than 5000 lumens) are costly. Would a 3000 lumens short throw projector installed at 1/2m from the film provide the same video quality as with a 5000 lumens projector installed at 5m from the film.

Thanks for your contributions

Hi HOB - 

Possibly. One would have to actually try it in your environment to be sure.


I'm looking for a proyector for a backdrop/cycloram on a stage in a theater. The throw is only 19' long and around 18' high from the floor. The cycloram is 18' high and 28' wide.

Awesome guide!

Hi Henry - 

The NP-PH1400U 14,000 Lumen Professional Integration Projector from NEC is a fixed installation class projector for event spaces, large venues, houses of worship, lecture halls, theaters, and other settings that require a powerful light output. The NP-PH1400U features three 0.96" DLP chips that generate a 1920 x 1200 (WUXGA) native resolution and a 16:10 aspect ratio. A built-in scaling engine means the projector can accept many lower resolutions as well, including a variety of VESA computer resolutions as well as HD and SD video. Featuring an interchangeable lens design, the projector is compatible with as range of separately available lenses from NEC, including short-throw, zoom, and long-throw options.

This is the recommended lens for your stated geometry:

The NEC NP25FL 0.67:1 Fixed Short Throw Lens is a power lens designed for the NP-PH1000U 11,000-lumen professional installation projector. The lens will support a variety of specific installation environments, such as conference rooms, halls, and exhibitions. The lens is easily installed by end users and doesn't require any special tools.

We want to replace a projector in a small conference room. The current projector is mounted in the ceiling, approximately 9 ft from the the wall. Our engineering department wants to be able to split the screen on a laptop to project two images. I'm thinking we need a projector that will display 1920x1080. How can make the image wider in this environment? Will the source have to be capable of 1920x1080? (not all presenters will be able to provide a resolution that high)

Hi Mike - 

Projectors are fairly "dumb" devices so do not rely on them to do much processing.  Make sure your source can output the needed redo;;ution content.  I would recommend considering projectors with higher resolutions than HD, like WUXGA (1920×1200),  2560 x 1080, 2560 x 1200, 2K, or 4K

Please contact us via e-mail if you have additional questions:  


Every 2 years we do a trade show where we showcsaae our software.

The building we are in is a big open high cieling building hall.

We have a cubicle 3x6metres.  We can not dim or control the lighting and usually the bulding is well lit.

What would be  a suitable inexpensive projector (as we will only use it 1 or twice a year at the most)

If possible we may use it at thome for movie nights in the back yard as well.



Hi Mark - 

Show your presentations in nearly any environment with the BenQ MU686 3500-Lumen WUXGA DLP Projector. Its 3500 lumens of brightness will overcome ambient light in most situations, while its 20,000:1 contrast ratio will help keep images and text clear and distinct. Its 1.15 to 1.49:1 throw ratio and 1.3x zoom offer a range of installation options.

Hi. I have two good projectors with high lumens. I'm looking for a "pico" or similar projector for smaller presentations. I'm between the AAXA P4X Android that was just released. 175 lumens. Lots of features, inputs, Android O/S, etc. I'm concerned because the throw distance is 1:9.

The other projector I am considering is the Asus S1. Not as many features but a 1:1 throw distance and it might be sturdier.

It seems to me that a short throw distance is better for a smaller unit because the brightness will diminish the further you are from the screen. Is that correct?

Any suggestions?



Hi Mark, I have recently ventured into projecting images on the back wall of a small village hall stage for Panto and other show purposes. The projector I hired was a SanyoWXGA Model PLC- WL2500. It was brilliant and I am now considering purchasing something that will do the same job or be an improvement. I have now spent many, many hours trying to find an equivalent ultra short throw projector which will be permanently fixed to the ceiling (lens about 10 inches above top of screen) which can give me a 3 to 3.5m wide image from a throw distance of 1 to 1.5m, or less if possible. Can you put me out of my misery and advise whether such a projector exists.

As a newcomer to projection your WEB info was first class.


Hi Bob - 

This projector should offer you the quality, performance, and geometry you have been seeking.

 The BenQ MW824ST WXGA Short Throw 3D DLP Projector provides 3200 ANSI lumens of brightness and a 13,000:1 contrast ratio for clear, bright presentations - even in rooms with high ambient light. It features a WXGA 1280 x 800 native resolution, a 3D DLP chip system and a LampSave Mode that supports a long lamp life up to 10,000 hours. The MW824ST is equipped with SmartEco Technology as well, which combines optimum levels of brightness and picture quality for maximum energy savings and a lower overall cost of ownership.

Please contact us via e-mail if you have additional questions:

Hi.  Great article.  I'm looking for a few projectors to campare for a school auditorium.  Screen size is 18' x 18'.  It would need to be ceiling mounted, with the ceiling being about 50' high at it's peak (it's domed).  Lighting is variable in the room.  Sometimes all lights are off, sometimes lights are only dimmed.  Projector distance can also be variable. 

My bulb just blew out last evening so, I was wondering about economy projectors as I am handicapped, cant walk and have to get someone to do any lfting or the like so,my concerns are cost, and picture and life of bulb. My last projector (viewsonic pjd7820hd ) lasted one and one half years before the bulb blew and  had an excellent picture but was noisy to say the least. My room is 9 1/2 ft.x 18 ft. and I have about a 100" or slightly more screen with viewing mostly done without much ambient light .  my budget would be around $500.00


Hi Steve - 

I like this projector for you:

Brighten up your classroom presentations with the InFocus IN119HDx 3200-Lumen 1080p DLP Projector. Its 3200-lumen brightness combined with the 15,000:1 contrast ratio virtually guarantee a viewable image even in areas where you can't control the ambient light. For a more immersive experience, you can watch 3D content with separately-sold DLP Link 3D glasses.

The IN119HDx offers a throw ratio of 1.15 to 1.5:1 with 1.3x zoom. Its connections include HDMI, S-Video, two VGA, and two 1/8" audio inputs and a 15-pin VGA video and an 1/8" audio output. For presentation control and firmware upgrades, it also includes a USB Type-B connector. The projector has a 2W mono speaker built in and includes a VGA cable and a remote control.

Hey mark,

Looking for a projector to replace a 3200 lumens, room size throw is 21 ft and screen is 11.5 ft.  Current projector is ok but would like to see something a little higher lumens.  looking at something under 1k.



Hi Jon- 

This HD projector will deliver an image of 11.5' wide (138") with a diagonal of 158" from a throw distance of 21':

Produce high-quality images in a variety of business environments with the NEC NP-P502HL 5000-Lumen Full HD Professional Laser DLP Projector. This professional installation projector features 5000 lumens of brightness and a 15,000:1 contrast ratio with auto iris. Additionally, the NP-P502HL sports a Full HD 1920 x 1080 native resolution for viewing detailed high-definition images. This DLP projector is powered by a laser light module, which delivers up to 20,000 hours of life. You can use the NP-P502HL to project up to a 300" diagonal screen size, making it suitable for large venues. Furthermore, it features a 1.24 to 2.1:1 throw ratio.

With VGA, composite video, and dual HDMI inputs, this projector is well-equipped for a wide range of external video sources. The NP-P502HL is also equipped with an Ethernet port that supports HDBaseT connectivity, and a 20W built-in speaker that eliminates the need for external speakers. Other features include a 0.5W standby power consumption level, optional ceiling mount compatibility, and 64-step image magnification.


I want to do advertisement of my product on billborad of size 15x10 .

white Flex sheet is there on Billboard.

Which Top 3 projector is best.

I can place the projector from 8 feet to 30 feet distance.

My budget is approx 1200-1400 USD(up to 1,00,000 INR in india).

Please suggest.


Hi Vikas - 

I will assume you will be projecting at night.  

The InFocus IN3138HDa 4000 Lumen Full HD 3D DLP Multimedia Projector offers vivid 1080p image-quality and network control. This projectors delivers an impressive 4000 lumens with an 8,000:1 contrast ratio. The IN3138HDa supports full 3D compatibility via HDMI 1.4a and sports a full HD 1920 x 1080 native resolution. This projector is powered by a DLP chip system, and the lamp features a long life of up to 7,000 hours. You can use the IN3138HDa to project up to a 324.9" diagonal image size, and it features a 1.39 - 2.09:1 throw ratio.

Please contact us via e-mail if you have additional questions:

I am looking for a projection system that can put an 8 inch by 8 inch square instagram video in the middle of a photo display grid - is there a wall hangable slim screen of that size that would operate with usb - or a projector - distance wall about 4 feet - gallery lighting? Thanks

Hi Candace - 

i am not sure there is an off -the-shelf solution for you.  

Please send us an e-mail with your budget requirements and more detaiils regarding the nature of this installation to :

Hi Mark,

I am loking for a home projector to watch movies and games. I have 8.5 feet distance between the projector and the screen and i have about 400 dollars. I am looking for a big screen projector something like 100 inches or something like that. I was thinking about 720p. What are your recommendations for the best model for us? Thank you for your attention.

Hi Julio - 

I would strongly recommend a  Full HD 1080p projector for a few dollars more.  The difference in resolution is tremendous with a 100" diagonal screen.

   Enjoy immersive high-definition images with the InFocus SP1080 3500 Lumen Full HD 3D DLP Home Theater Projector. This projector delivers 3500 lumens with a notable 25,000:1 contrast ratio. Its 1920 x 1080 native resolution allows you view detailed Full HD images without pixel-loss. This projector is powered by a DLP chip system, and the lamp features a long life of up to 10,000 hours in Eco Blanking mode. You can use the SP1080 to project up to 299" images and it has a 1.4 - 1.7:1 throw ratio.   

Hello Mark,

Thanks so much for this article!  In reading the comments below, you come close to my situation, but not quite, so I thought I'd throw it at you to hear your thoughts.  I am an installer at a contemporary art gallery.  We show a lot of video art, sometimes multiple videos at different locations in the gallery.  The video comes to us in many formats, size requirements, etc.  We can limit lighting, but cannot achieve total darkness.  I am trying to design a new system for us and am interested in hdbaset products.  Ideally we mount projectors on our 12' high ceiling, run the cable through the ceiling to the office (30 to 75' depending on location) to its media player.  Exhibitions change every two to three months, so flexibility and some portability is required.  What are your recommendations for the best model for us?  

Hi Pam - 

I will need to know your intended throw distance (projector to screen distance) and your approximate budget range.

 Please e-mail us at:

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