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Sync Speed versus Flash Duration: Flash duration is a measurement of the burst of light that creates the exposure. While flash durations are almost always shorter than the shutter speed, there are times―especially when working on larger sets at full power―when the camera’s shutter speed can be shorter than the flash duration. These times should be avoided. When shooting with flash, the synchronizing issues between your camera and your studio lights must be addressed.
Every camera has a maximum flash sync speed, which is the fastest shutter speed you can use when shooting with flash.* It’s important to note that the top sync speed indicated on the specs is often the top sync speed for shoe-mounted Speedlites, which is often faster than the top sync speed for studio lights. As an example, one manufacturer lists a top sync speed of 1/300th-second for Speedlites, but only 1/250th-second for studio flash.
With few exceptions, the top sync speed on most compact DSLRs is 1/125th-second to 1/200th-second, and 1/250th –second for pro DSLRs containing focal plane shutters. DSLRs containing leaf shutters have top sync speeds of up to 1/800th –second or faster.
|Shutter Clipping||No Shutter Clipping|
As an example, if your camera is set to 1/250th-second and the flash duration is longer than 1/250th-second, you’re going to experience “clipping,” which means the tail end of the flash exposure is not going to be recorded, which in turn can result in an uneven exposure and/or a color shift in the final image. (During the course of the flash exposure, the color temperature of the flash, like a candle flame, goes from warm (yellow) to cool (blue). What this means is if you should clip the flash exposure, the tail end of the exposure might suddenly shift to yellow.
It’s important to note that few flash meters have the ability to record the speed of the burst rate, which means it’s always a good idea to set the shutter speed of your camera one to two speeds slower than the highest sync speed, to ensure that you are recording the entire duration of the flash exposure.
*You can use faster speeds, but there will be a cut-off shadow going across the left or right side of the image that covers larger portions of the frame each time you increase the shutter speed.